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YDaNzxp vl{p nn~ {~Y ry {yxY

al 16Y ~fp{ [z r{y{, Sry ~x pftp, [hp[zzY rnpv, Rp ~Krx Sry tno rv{, YK {Y, vaMx X~vpH trRyD, ~x r [zY, R{zûl}{y Y{po rvx, YzyYl v tp, vz r, rt, YzyYl v tp

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v ~pp Sry tno ~no~mpxYx. Rp {~y n~ [jpYf ry n~ n~ ~Zl tvlp[ {pnp{f rl { Wvpv ry[ ~xM xl Y n~Y pN{zf v[rp{ R[p ~mpxYx. Wl K Y{y ~mpxY x rz{ Xtf xppf px. vpn K {p ~no~mpx Y{yYx l{vl |l{ p[p pv t. Y~ {ll vx rf ܻtpp p[py {y ܲYjvzxf vqY XJtx.
ܲYjvzx ~f rzvH vM[x YDaNz rn|xf r f xfv 34 { ûzfM Yj{ R~z v {y nYz [z YzY vl K ~no~mpx rf ܻJ. [zYz vl SYyj alx rnpv Rnfl x x. [zYz vpf {p [z rջr ~rl Yypp ~[xx. [zYz vpl ~f R{f t f nYpf ztp nM|px {apxp ~ly Y p lyK ~pnyx. Rp UrrNz, zNz rn~n RpY r~p xp Xx vnf {fp rzvH [z{yx rn|xn ~N.
YDaNz pY v Yq{yl rz~xl rf R u rn|x R|l{ r{p ~ K ~no~mpx Y tz [K R{Y|x Xtf pv pztppf Sh R t{n { xlx.
Y~ {ll Sx Xtf A Rp[ R{~m{ {p t{ rzx. Tf qv ~Y}x K p{z YDaNz rz~x pY Yq{y ux ~Yyp ryn Yvx.
p[py p{nxp rnp ܲYjvz rn|x Rl Uyvxp vl Yy [K Rѻxp cY Uyvxp rtq Rvl|x ~p Yyp vxvY rx{yY {|xp ryn nrMlKplN xc RoY} cpyz RaMx vz rMy rvZ YjhxvY ~ r|x Mvl ~tp ~y~x ryn vaMx X~vpH tr RyD rvZ |}e YjhxvYn WY{ Yv ~Yy.
vn rll r rz~ pY Yq{y u{z vpv rM RpY r~pn YK {Y nYpf z. [ RN{ plY YK Yjhxv z zx {h Yyp Rxy rp. WY Rlp Wx RplMcY vxvY xx p{ nppfn r{p. r| Slz cYxp vpv ~z nv ~{n|Yxpn {hv WY ~vpx.
r~[x Rr YDaNz {hv {l xp f RaMx vz rMy {pl YMxxYf ty [~ ~xn vaMx tr RyD vj [~K R{~m{ z. Sry Y~ rtq clply |}exY n {p vaMx tr RyD YDaNz S܃~x W rynlvY R[x rtq M] ~lyxY Rr vN lx.
lpxK Rl{yvp trv vl{x
YDaNz S܃~x [p Yl Yyp f rvYf W vlYzp S܃~x p [v {n[lx. {M} 1951 K rn|x lpxvY Sv ~q Rl{yK YrK trvxY v Rl. tp {p~[ nrlz vn pK vzY rfp ~ Yy{p zn K |zvx rv{ ~|} MvjxY t{ WYz Wx rY} Y vaMx ~pyl ryjlp vl ~qp Yy Rl. Spr~ 1972 W{Y ryn Yv~~ yc n ~z{ vl[ ropl{xp rn|x {y~pp{ YK ~{{n Sp {n[l pftp ~{Y v pl.
Spr~{ 1981 rzvH vM[xp [hv n~f {ppf RaMx |yp yx[z vl[ vzYl{xp ~{ Yvp yv Y~ ~ Yz yYl v tp{z Yf~ v Rl. p{ll 1984 YDaNz pY Yq{y ux l Yvp t rvxY l{l t rvxY ~y~Y v Rl.
Y~ {ll 1985 c 1 { YDaNz pY Yq{yf Y l~l{p[p Yy ryxY Wzz vl ~v[ ryn nrMlKplN K rn|xf R [N}j Yfxl Rj ѻxx. ryn zop ~mpxp S{l{ [xn pY Yq{y W v ly ~r~ {~Yf RY YzxY Y l~lxp[ ~j ry RvN p~z RZjh{v r{l{[p xppf yy pY v{f x. W rszxY {|xp Yzx {zlz{p ~YzY{ {~ppf Sh t Rr[ Rl Uyvxp x vl Yy [K R{~m{ z R t{f ~l rM{Y{ ~qp Y xlx.
vl t t{ rMmp Yyp ~ქ{lY
Rr vzpv ~qp Y alx r [zYzp Y {fj YGxY Sry ~zzrxY zbp ÃrxY p [ppf v 70-80 x[x l{l cx[jx. ò~l {M} 7-8 ~x{~{zf Rxl K ~zzrx ~qp {pp K al n~x Y rpp v vl tN{ xx ~xK Ur~YxY Y rMmp{.
pf UhxYy{ r{p ~z zrx Yh al 16Y r ÃrxYf Yf R Rpnv vaMx tr RyD Rrf rpx. Wl W R RY}y pK Rrzx. vl tt{ rMmp Y K lpll Y{yYn? A rpxf rlyY l{vl pvl.

pY Yq{y ux 1984 ~{ Yۻvp ~x [pj t rv l{vl pY Yq{yv r{. A{ SpxN Rp rn| rplx p[Mcp Yjh n~p K yff rp{p zn t{ r[p. rvx v{ R r}jx ~xx rpv Rp{l trv ~{u{x Rp{l Wx Rp ~Krxf Yy{p znnY t{ r[p.
pzl UMj yv ol{ vl Yf r{v ~Y~ RY twy v ~f rfr~p ~ {zzY ~ Yf t t{ nYpf zv, ~{M z Uyvl WY lpp rfp [p ~yy ry ~ xp Rxp v{ v Rx v ~|}lx.
R{zûl}{y Y{po rv{
f R~ppx r{p pDaz Yzr{p R{zûl}{y rv{Yn ~x[p zj. R{zûl|{y t~l{xp[ Y{po rvxY Rrf rp{ vaMx tr RyD Wx ò.{. 7-8 { ~x{~{zf Rxl rzz{ ~Krxf Rp{ v{j ~z rvxY t{ x.
Rr Yl{ R{zûl}{y rv{l ~v[ {pl v[Yf xv {x. vlpf R{zûl}{y rv{Y rڻx Rx? rlY t { U~ [z Yz vl ~xY SYyp znn Rx? SpxN ~f K ~mpxf tno rv [p Wp znn Rx? xp r|p ~xzzfv rly p Rr vN Rl. vaMx trRyD rp{ np Rpnvf YDaNz rn|x Rr p ~p ~mpx Rl Rlx {yxY rf .
R{zûl}{y t~lp pYxpf rf RyY}{ ~z~p t{fl Wvpv [zppf rf{p t{fl |{~xY ܻtp{. A ~ Rlx ~v {yxYv r R{zûl}{y rv{zf {pnp vp Yyj. xK ~mpxp R{zûl}{y rvxY v{pp pK Wx WYY {yxY plpK yzY K |z x{Y ܻtp{.
vplx, nwY rfp, vzN, xx zY rfp, ~yz R ry {yx{zpn R{zûl}{y rv v{j. vaMx tr RyD Yyjx rz Yx.
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A ~v[v alx Yl{l rz {x. Rl Rlx {yx R~ppx U~ vY alxY SK ~KrxYn x. [h{x { ry {yx{zn al rf{ j.
{lvp Yw {yx SYf R alx Rl vn ~f Yw {yxf r~p xl{zf vzpv rpp K ~zYjY (Land Mark) {pp ~v Sry xܲYxpn alx Royxp { Yzx {yx r S~N{ ~x xppf Rl.
ò~l {M}xp rv{ ~x{~ rfpv YDaNz rn|x tno ~no~mpxY rf t t{f ~oY v{p t{ vaMx{yx rp{ ppx. Spx{p trv [p{p znn vyf rv YMvplx p Sl Rl Rlxx.
`f vaMx{yx Rr Yq{[p [x pY v ux pf YK ~{p ~mpxYfx. Wx 1984 Sry t rv v{ ~mpxx. {lvp YK v[p Sry [hp[zzY Rl{yvY vlYy [ppf R Rxy Rr v.
nn~ {~Y ry [hp[z
K Sv ~|}x. rN xpv nYpf ztpp Y[z { lp. tz hx Y[z ~my lpf Sp [hp[zz Rl{yv l~ z~ Yr ~Y~ Y [z ~my lpp SYf Rl. A vl Sry [hz tKv.
Rl{yK rzl [hz tKK rzl Rp{ K ~mpx |Yvl {pl [hp[zzY t t{ ~l[l x.
K vzY SK ò~l {M} 1-2 ~x{~{zf Rxl t{ r{~p vaMx tr RyD rn|x ry ~ xp SK Rp{ K ~mpx uY}p ~x [jpY {h ~ RyvxY {ppf R t{ n UrYzrpx Yyx.
Yz yYl v ucp rl Yf~ Rx v{ t{l A{ ò.{. rv {p ~x{~ lyK Rlxf xp t{l X x.
lz ry{Kr SK p{l{x
t f {n[l ~x [K{zf v[ rnpp YvY Rw ~v. YDaNz rz~x Srf ryp RpY rll lz ry{KzY Sv ~q r~[x Rl{yK Yr Rl. A R{~mN Sry [hp[zzY rnpvY vlvx v{y p{ll rynlvY YK ~Yyppf v[ r ܻtpp.
{ òxlvY { ryn nrMlKpl{ K ux {n[lYv rp{ R lz ry{Kz Sv {Y{ rn|x rynlvY {pYvY R ~mpxY {|xp pK Yf Rl.
R ~mpxp v{ [hz Rpyory x[xf Rxl t{ [vpx Yf ܻJ. ~pfM 40206 rvjx rz~~ zY [hz ò.{. 3-4 ~x{~ lyK RlxYf UyvYK xx.
lz ry{Kr SYyppf [x ~mpx RyKu Yyp zn YK {p ò.{. 3 { ~x{~ ~f 9 { ~x{~ nY{v K rn|x xj cp{~ r{ t{ l{y {x. yv Y~, p r`p Ytz Rx vv ~ K ~mpx ~ cpl{ clply [pnp{z xl { t{ r xx.
YK { 5 { r~ ~myxp ò.{. 5-6 { ~x{~{z yv Y~ v{ Rly 3 { ~myxp ò.{. 9 { ~x{~ r`p Yz v Rl. 4 { ~myxp 6, 7, 8 xp ~x{~{z ~ òxYyYK rz {x. A x[x ty ucp Ytz rt ~ty Rx v Rl.

YK{ rlv ~myxp ò.{. rv { ~x{~f Rxl zY} Y~xY v ܻJ. [wyv ~myxp Yz yYl v ul Yf~ vpv ~lp[ RfYfn |z {|xp v ܻJ. tzYf, Uy [{ Y R o ~lp[ RfYfn v Rl. Rl ~[ rucp yf{ rtq Rn~Y Sp [hp[[l x.
Y~ {ll ò~l {M} rv { ~x{~p Wf [x RlxY YDaNzx pv t{ r xx. v r[ W܃~Y vp{ òxYyYK rtq ~oY pv t{ vaMx tr RyD ~qp Yx.
vlY Yyp zn YK{zp l{y { Yyj Rp{ YDaNz rn|x {yxY r{ t{l ò.{. rv { ~x{~ rfp r{l Wp tno ~no~mpxY { t{l [vpx Y x. Wvpv Rpyory x[xf ~vply{ ò.{. rv{ ~x{~ ~f 10 { ~x{~ nY{v K rn|x xj cp{~ {yxY r{ t{ l{y {x.
rDavz yx vlpn?
nwY rfp [h{x zYrfp R RpYl ~mp rtq{ v {|x Rl W܃~Y {|Yl [pm{z ~qp{ Rll YDNz rtq p[l ~ ~fpY pv t{ vaMx{yx r{~x. K ~mpx rDavz yx xx vlxY Rll Wx vlY l{y pv t{n vaMx{yx x.
K ~mpx W܃~Y Rppl{ l{y v Rp[lxf uy Yyv. Y~ {ll xnoxp r~ |] [vpY xnp rn|{~ cpl{ K W܃~Y u Yzrx Rp{~yxp Rzz[p ryn {pYv p| Yyppf Sh Rl. Tf Wy{ rx{y [p p[py {y yx ~z tno Uyvx Rp[l ryry {p{p Yv ryn nrMlKpl{ rvZ {[{ xllp[ xlYvx.
cY Uyvxp rtq Rvl c[l tz~x vl[ Urn~ r Wv Rvl| zYK Yp Fl[ vlx[ ~KtpYyjxp ryn RoY} cpyz RaMx ~pyl ~pxY vl[ vxv xfl Uly p[py Yzrx ry{~l [N}jx K ~yY}jx K {rxY òxlvY {p Rly A xfl ܲYjvz rn|x ry{~l p [vf ~yY}jxn ~ YM. K p{z YDaNz rn|x YK ~ Yyppn A {rܻxv rx{yY {|x. YDaNz rn|x ry{~l p [vp Rply{ R ux ryn uxY {|xp RyY} Yy [vf rx{y [pp t{ RaMx vz rMy ~qp Yx.
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