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m |{~{zf Rux[ Y AtK . Y{M

Rvy {vnv

Y{M |{ nzx 1922 , Y{M[ q RYY vx 1960

SpxN vztM r vMlKv ~xp ò~x n{~mpx Y}g n{[{yxY { Y{M Rxr lKv YGgpM[ rlx AtK lv~ Y{M x. X Urpp 1898 Rrz v~x 10 x.
lv~ Y{M vzY Rorpx ໅ ~x rx ~pv RyKu Yyp zn y{zz ~xp ò~x r~z x. Wx X[ [nyv r{l{ r~z. Rply{ {y Rorpx ~q YzYfN t[t~ |{nzxf Rll {x x. W ~ll{ n{ lj n{ rtq Urx zt [ll x. Xx Rly {yxv ~l MZ p}l rtq{ n yppf x.
lv~ Y{M[ x{ [y {lxx. X rmvxpv rlvY ztN YGfxK ~.WK.~. zfx. K Yzx |}xpf rx[Y S[pK ~q |Y ~vf YYyxf [x x. |Y ~K Yfxll yl{ ~x Xf xrpx ・z zr{yx { Y} n{[{yx v x. W X Y RyopxY Rp{ xrp ・z [y{yxY xf t. A 1928 x. Wlp ~f X zYN l rYy{Y {x x.
Y} rxlv xrpx nzxp |v ztp lYv {M} 15Y rvj Y{M n W S[pK Y x. Wlp r~ 1943 [zz DvpH ・z [y vkzzf WY { Rly 1947 [z~~ |pl lv~ nzxf WY x. 1953 Yw lM~fp nzxx [y vkzzf WY {j Rly 1959 |v xp lyv lM~fp nzx RaMx{yxY xf Yfxl Y x.
Y{nl m vl Zjhpx K ryvj [l RxY { Y{M m |{~xpf yno Ry[zxf ~òx{ ~Ktpo {x 1960 rfp x.
~y~x S[p [pp Rlylyl m vl q vf Ul~xY [l Y{M xrpxf r r~ A{f Vc{v ~Ktpo x. W ~K vz{Yv X[ lx t r{. {yY 1932 xrpx vpxN rl ulxp WK R{~m{Yf X n ~u[ {x x. A v {~lp r WYl v ~q A rlf [x R{~m{Y vj [~j [y{yxY ~v[ x. K Rly{yx Y{Mfl A R{~m{f ~u[ {ppf x.
Wx S px. v ~p[Y vn pzM Yz x[xY rc{f ~x Yfxl ~Krnpx Yyp ~ѻx x. vpl, |zY [xp Yyp ~ x[x R~ {~ v{ Rx { Wxf nv [ll x. X[ Rl{~~Y Yry rllY nz{ { vl lt Rly |z [ppY X[ {p Yvp Y [l x. A ~v[ x[x Yry rll {p [p zYh lDxYf x. vz~ lp {yY Y x[x lvp[ nYj Rl Rzz p {G x tzppf n x. p {v n p{ . l{l p ÃrxY [l { lp x[x lz r~ {M[xY lDxf nv lz Syx. X n [ Tf nv Ulyp lz{zp p[p vf rw Rl lz xf x. l rvn cpl{f R|M{n Y x. W~v ulxp rz{ ppf rzYf vl Y{ lt Tf xK xyxY {l Yf A{ azpx {p Rxy rpx. rl{~p ~vxp Rz [x Rly ulxp rz{ v Wlp ~vrl x.
` px lv~ Y{M n x[x[ ~YK Wz~pv ~ Y x. tx A vvp ly{ x. z{ Yry r Y{M n { vl lt [ll x. p {v n ply Y x. Uj lz lDxf Rl x. rzYf vl Y{ lt xyxY {l Yf A{ azpx {p Rxy n rpx. X ~vxp Rz [x r~f K Fc{ rnppf x. Yry [ [lf { R{~m{f prj {x R{~m{f rl N. Yry rll { vl lvf ry Y qp nlz ll Yy [. K RlM Yry { vl lt [pp Rly [ z rflf rx. pvl A ~ vl R|{~ r|{~ pYy ~x. W~v n Yr v lz lDǻx vyxf rw Rl Tf x. W U}jl{x ~pѻ[H ~xxf Rh Rly Rlf NnpY t{Y ppp{ pN. pvl {v Rl S{lf [v ~ x tt vp rz~~vp {Y [ppf r{p. Y{ vlf n Rwz {l Y Rly p lpY RKzxY {l vp A{x azpxY n R Y Y. vYn RKzx R ~GY RKzx ~v[ Y{ l R Yz~xK YtpG ròx vp Ytp hxY~xH {x{ r tt y|xY f [. W{p R~f prpp n~ ~Zl tt ~ Y{{z azpxY R vfl x. K Fc{ rp{ ry x[x Y nl X ~~ rpx.
l{l {l{Y Xvh {px ulxY nppf [x x. W t [~Y f[l zy {M[xY ~ yܲxf {p RzYx ulxY xf rn|{~p ~Y Yy . W~v 1941 {M}x xrpx ~ܲY ~y { ~xvp y[ vl v[x Rllp ~v[ Yl Yyppf rz ~ѻx x. K ~xzz ~l [py nY{ppf Y{Mf x. v{ ullv ~v[ Y ~zzK, Fc X[ lx Rppl x. Rrvj x.
X l{v l{ vlx [p [xl l{l YzY W{p rn[zxp ~u[ Yy{ [p ~oplvY{ r [~. W{Yf Y{M |v ~{xp ~ xp K ~q h[ Yyppf Bp{fl {h Yzx . zYN l{ ~[vx rf {x 1960 x. X[ q, RYY vlx, rl W~, e r.W~. Nnvll, e vMp Y~{G, lM~fp nzx tp rMy |}x W RyKuY ~vYx x. v~ rl ~v r{ Rly pp p r~ { x. Wxp ~vf X[ {~ ShYh v {xp lM~fp ・z ~p~y S pxY ~ {. m{p[p rhpxf zY{ ~ ~p[ l~{ r~ X{ òx Y. 1961 Y{M xyrx ~ayx Y Rly n~ plYxp[ zY ~[vx ~vYl{x n zt [ll x. Sp r~ R~xp Yzrx ~ur xl X Yfxl Y x. n~ plYxp[ zY ~[vx ~Ylx xz [jx vz. Pensee pK { W RMmx ~vx.
W~v vz h y{ ~ vjYf ~vp x. R[~lN vz rx ln {MjxY [p. K ~[vx rmv ~`y{ 1881 Yl x. ~~x~ pK pvx Y{M Tf zr ~rxx.
m vl Zjhpx vl A{ rp{ vnz [ypp{p[p cpl{ Jy [vl ~ Xf o lMcp [Mcp RN x. ~vy fY R~ {apxp zx{j zr Xf ztj Rly X vy nvp tN xp vlyp zn lw~y lrzp Wx. X Y A lw~y YGfx xfv lt[p [vx. Wl A{xp ~{p{ xx Rply Xf ~ p{j Rly X ~x n|p{z A{ ~vYxpf rnM|px Y x.
Ypx vlv lx ~z~K Yyp Rx Sp Jy [ppf n Xf x. vpv r~f X[ p[xf rx ~p x[ np ztN Ypnyx xf x. pvl Wx lx rfz{ [vY x. pvl Y{M[ R~y ~ rn[zxYf oMxxp Rlv |{~xp lx cx [l tN X rp{ pp x.
X[ rY}jxY R~p Rvj[h zYylp zx pf rfrlY Rp{ Ry [t yYh pK pfxY n Mvjx {x x.
[ r[v, [ rpnvY v{ l lt [p ~v Rx y X l{l cprx {x x.
[ r[v, [ rpnvY v{ l lt [p ~v Rx y X l{l cprx {x x.
Y{M { ~ѻx SpxN f{p YM RYyjx ~y Y.WK. S vl[ {vz xx { RYY ~v[ x. Rx X[ Rn~{zf tpv ~r Rn~ Rlx. 1925 { { K x{ Slv rvl xY [l Y x. K x{ l r[zK vov yܲx zvp, R{ly Rzz [vf ~p r{z [l Y {y n Rppl x. Rx Q zYN l{p[ ~[vx ujh[Y {{ x. R nY} f~ IJY{Y n {{ x. Rx x[x 1975 ~rlKtM v~x x. X R {p{p vyj pvY r{lrl{z rayx Y pvl [{pzx Wx rayx v rܻ}r Y x.
W ~qp{ tj r~{p {fp ~pf Yyny vf ~lY ulxY S pYf, RYY Y{M vx R{~p ~v { x. R[ Yvll r vl nx zY |{nzx {n R|x {l Rn (~Yy) U~p 8.00f Yw 06, rvYh rfv[, y{zz ~f [p xp Rl. Rpl~{xY pvl. vz{hK Rp{|x.
1975 WY~l cprnx RMp~G Yz r~y n vo~mpx Spxp ~[yx p WYl K YjhxK ~vYl{x Xf rpv{ n Xf Tf ~u[ vf p {x q[ R~r lll{x ~ x. f rmv X Y vp~Y Rvp~Y |Yx tpopxf WY~l cprnx p~f nM|p nxlpx RaMx Urx rpx. v[ [N}j rnpK Yy [p rpyM cpvK, vy ry, pKYx, Ry [t yYh R pf, lrf nv, vzxzK ~z t~p Mvjx x. X A{f y[pxp n xY x. X[ rMx}j X [p zx [pm [jp{. S[~, p, vzxzK, r~rN, ~z R u}{zp zx ܻJ. X[ zZp x{f {hlv lz{Y ztj RYY vlx[.
1978 {~y RyKuxl ~v[ X R~r [ܻxp ~ppf x. Wl v R{~m{Yv l{ ~[vx rMx}j ~K{zf ~u[ x. Y~ pvl 1978 ~rlKtM 18 X x [x x. vaMx Yz p~Yf pK t r X[ |yx {n nzxfl ~ Ytz lM~fp nzx y~xp[yxfl uy np zx.
Y{M ~v YfxllYv Ryvf x [ll ~p Rly R|u xx razl p Nz{p x. X Y{M {~ Nl W~ x. X vvl [vp [x {K rx ryf lt x. W~v {~ ~K {zp ztN rc { Rh[ vc~{Y p{ lyvY |z rGx. W t WY nxY {x R x. Y{M Rvlv RYyx Yp. X ~y~x ~x n v{ òx{z yl vp rxf rl { Rx. Y{M[ rl W~ { {x r| cY cYzp ~v[ x. K x{f ny{p ܻnpY ~ pvl WY rlY RYzx x [x x. W~ Y{M n 2006 x [x Rly cYzp lv ny nnp vptyp ~v[ n~KtM {h{f rvYh {~f rjx.
Yzlyp {p Rvlv RYyx ~Y xf Y{M px x.
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