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{pn~ Ypn~

bpn {pn~xf Ypn~ p tK{ n|rzpx p{l {yY vyG v{yj{z yjlvY tzN[x t{f rl{ppf nypp { Yf Ul~xf x rj z ܻJ. n~[l Y l{ nv hx~ryNl, n|x n|x clply WpB vxNl, Ypf Yl Rp tK{ n|rzpxl WYl{ xl {yY yf l K {l{yjx R Yyppf ryvj [l t{ Rvl{p p{vp x.
Y l~l{nx np Yy Ax Q zYN W܃~Y cx[jx l{y Y v tz Yq{y nYh Yy tK{nx x Yyxf [p AK Yf Yvpljx xl Y K phxx. R{~px A Yvpljxf cx Rl Yy np vyG Ax tz Yq{y nYh Yyppf K Yh phxf v ~v~l cܻxv R{~p{Y { {[ Rvl{p p{vp x.
K {p f vyG tK{nx S܃~xf xfv {~y fY ~KrMj Rl. A Rp{ tzp Yz K {pv yc ~Yzrx Rn Tx R {{Y pN. v yG Ax v tz Yq{yf Rn Rxl ~x np A S܃~x p ~x pK A [p ~ R{toxY, {fvY tj pK vyG l~l{nx lyp Y ~ppxYx WY Yq{yYl, Yf Urry{G{zf ~ p xn pxYx l{l Yq{yYl ~mp[l p{ppf Sh tj t{ Rr[ {fv x.
Y~{l tK{ nv n|rzpx bpn Ypn~ rr{ x Yyxf [p Wppf nv cY ~popxf v l WY~~l Q zY{ xl uxpY U{yY Ruv{f [pl R {p Rr Syv xv. A t {pK {{vp{ X{p[ RY WY W܃~Y RuvlMmx {[ Rrf rz{v ~pm Y ~ x.
W 1949 W~.F. . az{px[K ~p rf{ [p zt zY nv yc rY}x (Sz[x lz Ry~YD) RyKuY rY|px lp v X{p[ Ypx Ryvj Y{yY {xx vpp ~pm Yy ܻJ. W A t{ ~qp{ Rll K RYyx.
n cpl{f lv n~l, lpYz Rlv [y{xl ~Y Y YY n X{p[ r|p xY~[l{ rclpl{{ ~[l YY n yG n cx ~q ~{x rzpxY, ~{x yjxY ~Y Yypp { lvp[v ~{p ycxY zt [vf Sh v.
1951 r{l{j rhyz rY}x {M}Y ~KKzpx ~Kvl Yy [pj rl ~qp xcp{ hyz rY}x zY nv S܃~x [p { Yvf rfp [l vl{nx rw {{. A v~ x.
lvp ~p ~KrxY{ rzrxK{ ~pp { rn|xp ~q nv u}{ Yl Yypp { cpl{f Yh Y p Rx{~YK R xp ycx ~p [zXx cprnx l{l Wt uu[xp ~KrMjxp ~z cpx v[p cp{~ K {{vp{pv ~z~K Y rrlx Sz[x lz Ry~ YDǻx rmv cY ~KKzpx nppx xppx A.
K Rp{ l{y {px K {pv yc ~Yzrx W rfpv nv n|rzp zYx Ypx Ryvj t{f rl{ t t{. 1976 az{px[K[ pxYl{xp  { h WY~l vY ryvj RyKuY rY|pxp vpv Y ~opx RpYl tK{ ~op{z z rY|p{zp n Wx vpp l{y .
1976 h WY~l vY ryvj rf{ [pj R{~mN rY|xf rl Yyp zn {hYYhx rY|px Wp WY EnxY v~ ~qp N.
S܃~x Ryjnx rfp |l {M}xp X~~ ~z, nv cp ~p zYN Rxx lvp nr~ Rly t[p tj xp vv cp ~~nx nv cp[p Szz ~px n~ ~q { ~r|no ~[vxf lvp vvpv Yr Srl{p z~fl, rMj yc tz ~vc{ TK ycxY Ryvj Sf Yy [pplY r~ pt~p z~fl x.
v~{n[l, tK{ n|rzpxl R{~p Ryvj t{f rl{ t K TK yc ~Yzrx f Rf v~xYf ryl{ vf ~vlz Y yfY Slv Y Yz ry~xY l p{l Tf rj rv lyK YyvxY l{l pK x n? X{p K p{l ~òx ܻtpp lvp[ n|rzpx Ypx Ryvj {p {pv yc ~Yzrxf x vz ryppf x. A ~q nv cY ~popx, rop cpr RrY}Yxpf Srl Y Ypn~ vz{ lpv Wx x xl ~pm {x. Wx {hl l{y {x nv ~pop vpݲ lyxylp~K r~[x {~plp W. WK. ~{x ~v[ Y ~KvZ ~YDb{ y x.
2005 {~M rfp vyG Ax v tz Yq{y cxl, n|xl WYl Y v r{yY z~p Yyxf R vl ~f vlY{plyv tK{ n|rzpx rx{yp rx{y Yj tYxf ~{j t{ Sl rz x. v~{n[ KzDb l~l{nx ~p~p Yy np Yyppf {xl, A l~l{nxfl, tK{ n|rzp vx{fl Wv {Y{pN WûpYf ~vply{ S~vl {ppf p {l{yjxY yf l R{ t ~ x.
nv cY ~popx Uly - p[py nrl x AYtno Yyp z~ Yyp Szzvp rz {pp ~p ~p { TK yc ~Yzrxf Rllf nppf p{l X{pf R{| R t{ x. ~x Szzvf WY` rM|{x {p{p ~x cpl{ vx{ppfl, A ~q YH xppfl X{p yplyxp v ~pK x. cpr vpn ycrY} vl r{~pp lvp nv ~popx Szz ~ ~ Ypn~xYf WY` p{ t{ x. pvl rY} r ~popx xpp nv ~popx lvp WY {x ~ Ypn~xY pv{ t{ x. pvl nv ~pop vpݲ lyxylp~K r{~pp lvp Srl Y Ypn~{zf WY` t{f rY} r ~pop RrY}Y cpyz ~yl p~Y yz Yv~ vl{yp [~vYf Rl~p Yy WY` t{ ~Y Y t{ x. Wv [~v n| yf{zf n zt X{p p{l v y lvp l{yfl |Y ~Krpp {p t{ n X x ܻJ. lyxylp~K vpݲ{yx ~p {~plp W. WK. [{pz ~{{f Y rY|x K {plY X rY}r Yy Szz R~Yy[p pl. A Rp{ rpppl A kl{ y ~lx [v {p t{ v x. Sp A [p l{ l{l v~p Y{M n?
~x xl{ ܻtpp |}gYyj p{Y y {p Y Uly - p[py nrl x AYtno Yyp t{f WY` tK{ rnxf pv p{p t{ pK Rr WYv xv. S܃~x rfpv A rnxf pf ph[K{z rsz vN vyf {~y ~x [jpY Rr~~f [x{[ rp rp { xl YyjxY pN. W rY vyG ~v~l cpl{v vx pxppf xp v Rl t{ n Rvl{p p{vp x.
WY~~l Y Ax Q zYN ~v K R`zYv r f Rfv~xYf ryl{ cY Y zp Rxy cxfv RvlY {ppf xY pl. pvl ryYf Rll ~zxf ~x n vlY ܻtpp WY ~xYf rvjY x xp t{f {yY ruYyp Y rY|xx. W Rll pll ly Jy[ppf K U Rll yjlvY R{~m{. nv ~popxf R{| r Uly p[py rvjY x WY Yy Rp rn|{zp Wx {p Yyppf x ry Yrp{n pll ~v~l yfv AYtno Yyp{x xpp [p yjx [l xll yG cpl{ v x.
l{l RYyxp xpp pK p{ll tK{ U[z {fp{n pnn xp p{ Rll cpl{ Rl v x. A Rp{ X{pf [ppf ~{ Rll WY~~l Y yf Y [pp{n pnx xp p{ x. A ~q lvp ~l tzx |Yx [p cpl{f rz {fvY x xl v x. A [p ~ {fvY pv pK Rr Sp Yѻxp ~qp Y tK{ n|rzpx S܃~x r|zpx v R|xpv {n[l {p xl x.