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Q ~noMvxp qY
u} {zf Yf p ~`{j nK Ryl xp rn yY Yvx

86 Yf~

{yY RuxylpzYy ~{p {p~

yY [p Yl Yyp f u}{ vYY {jl cprn yYx R~ pYy AY oMvx [ K ly [pp z~ tp {p~ n|p Yy ܻxp{. K ~ cprn yYxf u}{p toYxY p. vYn A A cprn{z ul {p {ap{zp vp xp Rn~ [pp r{p pK u}{ vYY {jl A xp Rn~ Ry[p oMv{tox ztpp r{p, u}{ r|pxY p. oMv{tox ztpp Rn~p ~Y u} {zp p{x. pvl [ll u}{Y vz{Yf xfl Yyz yYypp [xv nK Rn~ [ Yypp t{ xp{. vFv Yx (3) 491 rfN Wp Ryj u[ ~lxp K cprn yY [p rp{ ܻxp{. Uyj z~ tp {l Yrrx `vf o cprn{z ul Yyp {ap nY{ Rl. r, rll, lm, ~y{, oyr, rj, r~z{ xp K pK{zp A A cprn{z tp p{p t{ ~qp Yy Rl. v W~ ul Yyp {ap{zf KYx RpY {yx x Rr xp WY BY tyx x n}xf {fpp p{, A RYyxp vlxY rf [pp p{ A A cprn{z A A {ap p{x vp Rn~p n x p[p oMv n|p Yyppx x nY{ Rl. cprn yY{zf ry [~{l AY oMv yx xl rp{ ܻxp{. K ~ cprn yY xp A{ lyK [p W~ oMv n|p v ~MmYx xzl rp{ Rl. A A cprn{z {{y u}{ Rp{ xvY p{pp ul Yyp cprn yY xl Wv p{ ܻxp{. WlYf pf lMY Yyp Unx yY xpp u} {Yyj {zfx. pvl tp {p~ yY x rp{x K xp yY yf{fx. AY u} KvY p{x. {{y Yyp {ap{zp `{p n lyK [vf rp{r Yvxx. K xp cprn yYxf Rn rp{pp r{p q Urv{Y ܻxp{. Rr Rn vdYY xp WYf ~vy rn|{z vxxYY x ul Yyp{. l{l ~vy rn|{z vxYY xzl xp{. p Rr R{l Xx xp u} {zp vdYY - vxxYY {j l, vxYY {j l rp{pp x r{pn Wv rp{pp? Wv rp{pp r{p u} YvxY p. vYn vdYY xpp t Rx vxxYY xppl Wvl x[pp Rvy Rx vxYY xppl ry {j lvp[ Yff y r~ {{y YvxY ~Y Xx xp u} tzz p{x. pvl K {ap lppv [v {pp WYv }x {~l{Y. K RYyxf {ap j Yv yf{l ~v[ ܻxp |Jn yf{x K ܻxpp. A |Jnxp `{r nxx. tp {p~ yY x rppN. WpK yY r~Ku pxf [ay{pp u} {Yyj p{x. K xp |Jn yf{f RpYz `K vz{x.
u} {zf Yf{z oMvx [ Yypp t x rp{p l{l lpY lvx ~xYl Yx 5 (2) 285 rfN Wp ~Z~p ~lx. alyMx ~lxf RYy Rrvjx. {cp Rrvjx, rn Rrvjx, tK Rrvjx x v rp{ ܻx{p{. WlYf K alyMx ~lx [ Yypp ܻxp rn Rrvj pK A{x RMmx [ Yypp ܻxp RYy, {cp, tK Rrvj pK RrvjxY rlYf ~fp Yypp r{pn rvj Yyz? alyMx ~lx rlYf ~v Yyz AY lyx oMvx ܻxpp x A ѻYp lyY ~Y} rp{pp r{pn? WpK rlp Wf [p alyMx ~lx ~ly Yl Ry xr Rrvj xp WYf R{p ~ Rrf r|pxY pp! WpK alyMx ~lx [ K rl ~v{ SYv{z [ Yypp l{l Bp lyK Yv rz{v ܻxp{. vYn rl ܻxpp ~y|xY. A xf YYyr rvjxY lvx ܲrfYx ܻxpp. Wv ~ xK~ ~mpxY ܻxp vGfvY alyMx ~lxp Rn~ vl{z Wp xf AYp ty p AYpv alyMx ~lx R{to {pp v[ rnp xf RMm rp{pp r{p pK A [ K {ynY p. K xf [xv {M[l Rrvjx. pxY RYyx n{z Uyj, Urv n ~l{ Ry[p lvp[ p vGfvf YpYf R{to {p xf [ Yyz x npp r{p. WpK W~ R{to {pp x K A{x Rrvj t{ ~ tp {p~[ n|p ~xzz rl{zf YYypp t. pvl Rn ~vy lMY{p Yl Yypp tp n|p Y oMvx rvj Yyr [pf Ry[px. Yn BY ܻxpp? vp rl n ܻxpp? Y K rl xpp vDayxp? R {|xp lMY Yyp{. WYly uY}p {p~ pvY tno n|p{fl rf{ xp rDa ~vrrn xp {apx r Sl ~vrrn x [ Yypp [x. Wv [ Y rDa xp {apxf oMvpYz{ r yYxf ry [ppx. pvl r Sl {[ ~~Yl {ap r{D Yypp Wr x R{l rp{ xl AYpv oMvx [ Yypp xp{. RpY K r Sl xp {apx rDb xp {apx lyK{l lyp {apxY p{x. rDb xp {apx Rr Yff y{z ܻxp{. AY Yf{l px xpp t. Sp K xf lyp u}{Y ܻxn tp {p~ Rpvl pY ~~Yl u}{p x [pp Rrf R{| p. vYn Xx u}{ {zf Yf Yyz rvj Yyzx nz ܻxpp. pvl Sl ~ly Y xf Rrvj pK Yvn rlYf ~fp Yy rvj Yypp? Rrvj rn N{l AY oMvx p{xn? npp YpY lyK Ry[p N{l AY rl plx x Rrf RY pp r{pn?
WpK K xf alyMx ~lx Rrvj pK YZ RMx ~lxl Rrvjx. YZ RMx ~lx [ Yyp f YxlyK pK Y [p [ Yypp r{pn? Y R{p RYyx oYyxp [ Y x. Yf l{p RYyxl oYyxp [ Y x. WpK YZx, YZ ~vnxx f [pp RYyxp lvx ~lY f[pp Yf ~l f[pp vvx N{l ~p u{x f [pp{ pK ~r f[pp{ p{x. AYl Y f [vY. WpK Y f[pp RYyx rDb ~vrrpp{ [ Yypp [xvl K xfv [ Yypp r{p. zYx f[vY ܻxp{ pK Y f [vx. AY rDb ~vrrnxp [ Yyp{. AYl Rrvj{ [ Yypp ܻxp YyjxY. WpK K djxx xp rl ܻxp dj xYf ~v Yy[p YYypp [xv y{p{. Sp K xf rDb ~vrrnx [ Yyn AYf p{pp n`zpp, Rrvj tK [p npp p{ {ynn[ll Unxx. pvl Rrvj{ dj [ Yypp [xv yY dj, t dj, tz dj... K R XYYv dj [ Yy [pp ܻxp{. Wlp oMvpYz{ ~v Wp{ pK AYx tzpp Bp. y[}xf, nN|}xf, vY}xf xm{toxf l{p t{ rp{ pK A oMvx lp Wv v[Y ܻxp{ pK AYx yx xf [pp Bp. zYx [ll u} |~l Ry[p yx [pp [xv xpp p. A ~ lvx K zYxlp |~l Rzz[p {p npp yxY ܻxp{n x R{l. Sp yY ~l{ oMvx {f[p ly[l xll K ~x. AY p [ll p ~x, rlf ~v{z x ~x, t tz dj np rDb ~vrrpp{ [ Yyn Rvl dj cxY x A{f p{pp.
pvl ~xYl Yx (2) 130 {p rfN Wp rv~p ~lx v~ rp{ Rl. ~Zy rjNn dj rj N. ~Zy RrjNn dj Rrj N. ~Zy RduNn dj Rdu N. WpK ~Zy xK RYyNn, dj A RYy{p t{ vz ~noplxx. K aYx {fj pK aYx npp{ pK Tf RpYz{ ztp rszx [hp[ xpp r{p. p K xr ~noplx rj ~Zy {|xp [pp Yf, n~ rj òx ܻxp{. n~ rj òx{p Wp WYf Wpp { pvx rj ~Zy, ~zvx rj ~Zy, u{pvx rj ~Zy Rx xnpp Bp. pvl vzoMvx lyK [ll ppK KY lyK [pp t. WlYf n~ rj òx N{v dj n~ RYyxp {p{. A {[v Rrj ~Zy [p Yl Yyn ~Zy RY~z {jv Rrj { pv djl Rrj N xp WYx ~noplx. vlp n~ RY~zv [ {pp Bp. WpK rj]lx ~ rj]l RY~zxp {Da djxYx f [pp. Wv p{ yYp A cܻx WYY f [pp p. yYp f[pp yYvf RpYz djxYx. K {[ KY tz tz [xv WY WY ~l[p ~lfl vv YvxY f [pp t{ px oMvx ܻxp{. Sp px oMvx lyK p[p Ry r Yz [jp nr aYYM ~ AYf r Uyj Y lyY Ry[p AY lyY Wzzz Spp{ {[ {hY lvx K [xpf p{p Rx Yyz ܻxpp. pvl aYYM vzoMvx lyK [ll pK Xx vYY{l Wzzz Spp Bp p lvpfv lyK [pp r{p. WpK l{f RpYzx, szx xp vzoMvx sz ppl{xY Wp{ pK l ppl{xpvx Wpp Bp. plpK sz ppl{xY Wpp t. WpK c ppl{xY {pp pK u{ ppl{xY {pp Bp. Wv p{jl WYv cܻx ~llx Urpp Bp. pvl AY Wv {z pp! YDay pK ~ll c Spp{n? px oMvx Sqz p{l {j pK r|pxY p K Yvx lyp{. WpK tzzp Urp t cܻx Urpp Tf RpYzu{xp. yY cܻx Urpp Tf RpYz u{xp. K lvx u{ rDax c ~noplx. Sp K Yyjx ly [pp t Unx lvx oMv [{zf p{pp. ry [pp. AYp v zY RryoxY A Rx Yy[pp. A Rryox Yy[p rYx p f Wf vv [ Yyz lyK Yyz npp Y{y{l Wpp p. R{l lyK [pp r{p lpY pvx Wf Spp. WpK p Rrf Xrr {p{ vDay Yz ~`{j nvY tjx xp Yyjx. pvl ~`{j t v[ x vl{p{x xpYf lMY{p AY lyK [pp {p Yvxp. tp {p~ rp{r t v[ pfl ܻxn AYf {h {pl WYY rp{p YpY Spp{ xzx K lMY{p rp{pp npp. ~`{j t v[ xp Yf A Rx xpp Rn ~`z p, t v[ rz{ ܻxp{ xzx. oMvxfl Rr~ Yyp tp[l tp {pp np{ xp K {[ Rn~Y lvx ~vcxf npp npp.
pvl v lMY{pf lyK [pp t{jf xmMmxp tzr{v t v[ ~`zx xp Yyjx Sl rz{v rpp ܻxp YyjxY. px oMvxp [l aYxx A aYxf RpYz{ p Uyj WYY nYY yppx, l{l WYY r[pp ppK A rn[zx Spp A yv{ l y{z. A xf S[vY l Spp{ ~Y Alp p{l {z p. [jp S[p [llf r~ A cܻx [jp lyY npp r{p. {pl cܻx [jpY ppv Wlpv rfzp{. p{l pܻYpf npp t. K {[ oMvx n|p Yyp Ypl, oMvx YfrhK pYy A ~Ktpoxp p{l x xlx. Sp p{l p S[p [l Yp Yvn oMvx n|p Yypp. r{lY r|pxY R{v UllyxY npp t{ y{p{p! K ~ S[p[l rzxf {p npp{l, n|p Yypp{l t. vlp ~xYl Yx (3) 243 rfN Wp rjrjhrv ~lx {n[l. v yr, Nnp, ~, ~Zy, dj xp r [ Yypp tp {p~ Urv{Y pp. yrx rp rhY {[, Nnp{ x ttY {[, ~ `{Y {[, ~Zy Yz YqY {[, dj vxYyxY {[ x. rDb xp WY rє xpp ~xcp oMv v[p ~~yf tvx x Urv ~[l{ [ Yf ~vy lMY{p rє xpp Sj tp rx x AY ~xf zY Yypp [ll. p K {[ [ Yypp xpYf pp{lYK lyv rp{pp Sl Urv [pp r{p. t{z{l rjrjhrv xp K ~lx ptj pK xK YpY N{l yrx rj rkY {[, Nnp{ x ttY {[ R z~ AYfl p{p{. Rvl cܻx WYY rp{p{ x. ~Zy Yvn Yz YqY {[ {pp, Yz Yq [, rz ܻxp{ Rn p YfxY {[ WYY pn x vvl lMY Yypp r{p. rє xpp tqp ~{u{x rp{pp r Urv t{ yYx ~l{ rp{ ppvl A {[ ~yz YyjxY{l ly [pp t{ AYf p{p K lMY{p ~Zy Yz YqY {[ xp Urv{ Y~ pK ly [ppn? p K lMY{pf AY tp n|p Yyr WYY p{x x rpz xpp r{pn? Wv Yypp t. vYn AY ~l n|pN ܻxp{. WpK yY lypp nppYK {yn vlp R{p{.
vl ~Ktpox
~Y~ Y : e
apnp ~{Mop