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Q ~noMvxp qY
tp {p~ rp{ p rn yY Yvx ܲrfY oMvx lp

 85 Yf~

{yY RuxylpzYy ~{p {p~

p rn Yhpp t xp Unx[p Rrf Rpp ܻxpp WpK ܲrfYxv rp{ ܻxp r K xf rn Yh rp{ ܻxpp vp u} xYf Rp{n x rp{p z~x. A Rx xp u} x Rp{ rM{~{y, ry~{y, uY vp{ {Yyj xYf Rp{ K rn Yz ܻxp r{p pK rp{pp. tx A Yvxp K xp RMmx zx xlx, RMmx {p~ px xlx. vYn K xf rn Yhp rp{ z ܻxpp tp {p~x. A ~ ܲrfYx ܻxp K Yyjx A Rxf S{l Yypp t. ܲrfYx rp{ ܻxpp tp {p~ n|p Yyr v[ yY Yvxx. ~Yx yYx N{l AYfx. A xpp |no v[ yYx xp WYx.

u} yY y {pl xp rn t RMm np rn yY YvxY plx xp lMY Yyp Unx ] Yx (3) Wp R[[dd ~lx Roxpx Y pK K rn yY x YvxY ܻxp t{ ~Y} ~l{ p[pp r{p. {ap Da vzY {|xp ~ly Yyp q [xY K ~lx ܻxp{. Uyj z~ yc tvj, tvj, }, {|, v ~Kvl R {ap j ~ly {p{. A Rp{ vcpl{ ~Kvl Yyp ~ v ~Kvl z~ pK{y R { t{l Y{x. v v NN vcpxfx. ~Kvl NN Yyp ~x. Spr~ Yl{zf Rr { ~ }ܲx z~ pK {y R { t{l Y{x. [lp Yl R Yfxl{zf Rr { ~ }lxY rzpx Yyp RMmxpx }ܲx NN. T`f cpl{ ycpx Yy{p ~ yc xp pv R { t{Y Y{x. v ycpx Yyp{ xpp ქp cpl{ xrl rf{p{ xp WYx y xppp rp{pp ycpx xp WYx c xppp rp{pp cpl{ xp WYx. WpK yc xp {apxl nYf Yh yY z ܻxp{. Spr~ tvj xpp j K xf rp{x. vY { RY~z oMv ty Y ~ tvj pK rv pK {y R x. Spr~ op v ~ oxYxx n{p pK {y R x. p v{p op pYyp ~ RoxYxx x l{p pK {yY R x. K xf r{p tvj, oxY, RoxY xp R{~m lp R { yY v[p rp{ ܻxp{. vxp l{p{ R { RoxY xp {apxp lvx Rorpx xp WY j. K Rorpx xp WY Ry[p lvx Rn zY{f Y[pp. pvl A Yzx Rorpx xp WYf tj tv rl lpY. vYn op pYyp ~ Rolvx p Rxfx RoxYxp NN. p A Rp{ rp{pp r{p Rox rn[zxf Rrpxpx Yyr ~ Ro + Rrpxpx - Rorpx { . A xpp op vp xvY zt[l Rx[p op pYyp RoxYx A zt[l n{z Szz [vx v ~no {j. xf Rlrx qf x Kt pYy Yp Sq[p, vp~ Kt Yy[l Rx[p Szz[p Yp{ {[ {hY. K ~x W Rorpx rlYf ~zYN. pvl r~ YzxY lvx op Yyp Rx Rhv vl Rorpxf U~~ lpY {j.
p rn Yhpp t xp Unx[p Rrf Rpp ܻxpp WpK ܲrfYxv rp{ ܻxp r K xf rn Yh rp{ ܻxpp vp u} xYf Rp{n x rp{p z~x. A Rx xp u} x Rp{ rM{~{y, ry~{y, uY vp{ {Yyj xYf Rp{ K rn Yz ܻxp r{p pK rp{pp. tx A Yvxp K xp RMmx zx xlx, RMmx {p~ px xlx. vYn K xf rn Yhp rp{ z ܻxpp tp {p~x. A ~ ܲrfYx ܻxp K Yyjx A Rxf S{l Yypp t. ܲrfYx rp{ ܻxpp tp {p~ n|p Yyr v[ yY Yvxx. ~Yx yYx N{l AYfx. A xpp |no v[ yYx xp WYx. AY {{y u}{p Rr WYY ~Y u} {Yyj{zf Yf{z nr WYY p{x. vYn v[ x zl u}{Y tj p. pvl Rn v[ rYl x [p ܻxpp Ry xr u} {zf Yf{z [l zl u}{Yfx. pvl tp n|p Y v[ rYl Yvx |Jnxp `v np{p {{y u}{Y ~Y zl u}{Y p{x. zl u}{ xpp vlY zxpp [ll WYY. pvl K lMY{p A Rx[ u} {zf v[ rYl xppl, ܲrfYx rp{ R r rn t yY np Yvxf Uvl rYl xppl lvx ry{z Spp. AYf l{ K xp rn yY Yvx A Rx [l u} pf RpYz p{p ~. p Rrf K lMY{p[p Rpp ܻxpp tp {p~ rp{ p yc, tvj, v ~Kvl K R yY Yv yf{l Xx xp xf Uvl rYl n xzx. AY Wv p{x pK A Rx rz{ rp{ x xlx u} ܻxp K xp rn j . WpK YNn Uvl rYlx? r~{ [l u}{Y, xY Ry[p AYf Yf{z AYp Wf xpp p{ Spp{ pK u} ܻxp rn Yv vp rYln? K Rx xp K u} ܻxp rn Yv v[ rYl p{x. AY u} |ynxp r~{ [l YvxY. WpK K xp ~vy lMY{p uY}p {p~z z~ r ~p K rp{p v[ yY Yv yf{ v r~~{Y Uvl rYl WYY xx K R z~ U~ ~ Yyp Rr~ Yyp f A Rr~x Yyz ܻxpp Yfn x p Yzrp Yyz tzpp. zNly t rxjp rp{r yY Yv yf{f pn K ~vDaz Yypp?
K xf tp {p~ rp{r v[ rYl yY Yv yf{ ܲrfY oMvx R{~m [jp{Yv rp{ ܻxp t{ Sl v~zvl{ tzK r xp{. ZnoY Yx r~Ku v[[ rYyjx (1) 91 rfN ~vxf R ~v ~ ~v xp t{ ~qp N. AYl yYxY. Wv 325 rfN Rprp~ ~v Yl xp vlYN Rp - R|{~x, Rrp - r|{~ z~ Rprp xp {apx j ~qp {x. A {[v vlp R|{~ r|{~ xpp {x{ p{ n~Y~z n~ RY~z t{l rz Yy Rl. pvl rn yY pnppYp K Yyjx lyK[l p{ Rprp ~ u{p{ xp Un Sqp {pYp ~v S r Rvx Rn Yypp. K ~v AYp {p Yr YpY x[pp{l p. l{ tp {p~ n|p Y Rprp ~x pYy {pl nxY Yyp ~x. A {[v Wv 333 rfN Wp r vZ xp {apx M{j RMmxp Ry[p ܻxp{. tnox[ vZ ryvMmx M{jx t{x KYp rp{pp. pvl AYl Rn{p f rfz{[p vZ xzx RMm nY{pp.
WpK K ~l n|p{zp [ Y u} yYp p{x. tp {p~ rp{r vzY yY Yvxx. K lvx vzY{v oMvpYz{ rn j . yY r ~Ku px vl{jf r~ K RYyxf rDa ~vrrn ~noplxf Rp{ rn j lypp rfp [pp{. pvl K yY Yvxf Rn ~vy lMY{p u} yYx rfz{[p. pvl u} yY, u} xp A{ vl Yzx [l u} |ynxp[ {hY. AY tp {p~ p YvxY p{x. ܲNn ryrrl tvjp[ Nn YvxY tj pK A Yvx Rp[vpx Yyzx K u} [p ܻxpp. pvl tp {p~ Nn Yv yf{ Rp[vpx Y p. zYx tvjp[ ܲNnx xp WY xplK Rr[l lll{xp {l Jypp r{p WYY p{x x tv rl nxY xfx rppN. pvl RMx px xv ܲNnx xpp rMN{~p~~, alrr, R~{YYx xp K p lpx. K ܲNnxf R{p WYY lvx K yY r~Ku px xpp. K xp ܲNnxp WYYvx yY r~Ku px ztpp. AY r RYxpf ztp Mzu nxY. |{Y ryl ryp Rxf |}x. AYp yY YYf r~ Uyj Urv Ry[p oMvx yx [ Yy rz Yy npp r{p. oMv{tox ztpp WlYfx. AY npp ppK {p YpYf oMvx Rn~Y R{to Yyz npp t.
K xf n}[l { WYly lMY{ uY}p {p~ pvY, rDa ~vrrn xp {apx yYx l ~l{ rz Yy xl AY Wv pvx x rp{lp v Yypp Ul~ [p ܻxp{. WpK AY xv lyv vYYn x rp{lY r|pxY R{v AYf rly xf r Sl ~vrrn x z~~z [x ~Y AY Da {l lyv{l [ Yyz z p.tno n|p{ Rp{ {pl YpY AY [ Yyz ppv AY r[ppl Yv p. lvp[ n}x zY Yy[p RYyYvf Rpp Napx Yy Yy lvpv x xp Yyjxvx zYxf rp{pp npp. RpY K r Sl xpp ~~Yl {apxY, rDb xp WYv yty Yyz [wyf zxp WYx AYp Yyz ܻxpp. K W fr tvjp lvp[ rjlx nrpp [ll u} lvx. WlYf azz{[[ rz (2) 101 rfN Wp ZnnY {lmZpnYx tp {p~ n|p Yyz ܻxp{ oMv [x ~~Yl u}{ ryjx v R{lY x. v[ yY [p [ YypYf ~~Yl u}{ rD vf YY Yy[l uY}p {p~z npvYf tp {p~ [ Y R{~m{Yx vxp rp{pp. v[ yYܻxp oMvx rvpp xzx W n|p Y. A Yl {~l{ ~y|x vvx. A ~vx {ap R, k R tvj cY { xv ~ l[z xp pK R nt vj YpY x. X{p u[{lp Yy Ww v~ x. {p~ p uY}p pp o pK Rll{ n, ppo [lxp, ppo cܻxp, ppo Yzxp Yv r {{ {l. X{ ~{x {{yxp tno {apx }jx Yyl. Wtp tno {apx {Y u}vx {ap vM[xf p[ppKx ă. v {Y u}{ NN ~~Yl u}{fx. vf tp {p~ v~ n|p Y. ~ ry}x, lr tno {apx {Y u}vx {apvM[xf p[Kx Y~ pK vtpnY x{n? ~ ry}x, vx prp {{p[ rv r~ n rp {{p[ {v r~n pN. vj, vx prp {{p[ prv r~n rj RlK YpY[ {p~v r~n {x. vj, tno {apx {Y u}{f pp[x xlx. xvY p[pp pK Xf Yz R{l {ppx. vj v[ yYܻxp tno {apx rvppx v~ Rpp { ~Y v Yz ĻN YYfrl xp WYx. WpK Y Yfxl {l Yfxl }Yy {p{x xp WYx. v ~Yx yYx ~l tno {apx }jx Yyp{x x rp{ Rl. ~Yx ĻN ~Y {l |no u{x xp WYx. WpK |no v[x yYxx.
WpK tp {p~ v[ u}{p oMvx n|p Yv AY tj {{y u}{p. AYf ~v zl u}{Y ~Ktpo {j. r~Yzp{ lvx zl u}{Y ~Y~ Yy[p {Yyj vz{p YfYy[p zYxlp u}{f {fp u}{Y N. A u}{ lvx Ry {{yxp vZ ryKry{p [pr Yvx Rlyz p ܻxp {prl {zf [ll. AYp ~no {j K xp [l |~l xvxYf vz{Y z {fYy[p YfYy[p Wxp Wf Yl Yypp p {~ lvx. K xp zl u}{p [l zY |~l xY lvx p K rl zxpp Ryp ܻxpp. K ~ v{zv ~Y} rp{pp npp rlf ~v{Da vz rHhY Ry[px. pvl vz [pN Rn~ {p~ p{pp [pp vZ ryKry{px. A ~ lvx v[ yYx rvpp NN. AY {p~ {pp p ~. K ~ ~~Yl u}{ [rpp p [ppv Wr xzx rp{ ܻxpp. A Yzx ~~Yx v[x x nYY tjl v[ x zl u}{Y tj p. v[xp vZ ryKry{p [p{x N{l AYx. {ap voxpx [pN. pvl v[ u} x Rn npp [ll u}{px. WlYf zYxlp |~l xp A{f Rx zYx ~p ul Yyz [ll u}{p lvx W vZ ryKry{p [pr oMvx Rn {p f zx ܻxpp. pvl Rn Yypp A u} {zf {z Yyz xl Yyz x[p Wxp Wf lpp xpp Sh pvx. pvl K Ul~ Yypp A tKv Yhz yY r~Ku pxp Wp Rn~ Ry[p ~`{j nK Ryl vlYy [vfx. A xf Bpv u}{p yY vl Yf YvY p. tx Ry xp [l u} rllYf z A{f {z p cprn yYx S{l pYy AY [ppx x tno n|p{p A Yyjx Xrr {p{.
vl ~Ktpox
~Y~ Y : e
apnp ~{Mop