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r cpl{[ l{l { n|rzp ryYyx cxppn npxY

Rvy {vnv

A WYn~ p{~x nY {M}xx. [zz cxppn r{p yx ol np K v v[zxf z zxv ~pK {x. Un {yN ycY Yfxl{z xp rn|x [xp ~{~ xvx y~mpxf rj Ul~{x ~opx K Yfxl{z yl {. rl pv[x ru{yxY{ ~ hx~x~ ~rz rjl npxY[ n n{~ { YzxY [{j A rpYK Yfxl ~opx vf x.
y~mpxf rpYK Yfxl rtq ~x tzp W{ pY Q u{p ~f rp~zf {[p R R~z{~ [xY npxY vlf ~ r{hxY ĻNx.
pf {p ny nppY zz
Q u{p xp DvpH Ypn R~z r npxY[ {~x. WYz DvpH Ypn p{x ~vp Ypn p. npxY vl y~mpx {hYfxl{zp RNN{ ~p vl X[ q Yyzxp npxY ~ѻx ny ~KrlYf ~p. A {~p{pl n{~ WYn~ p{~x nY XYltM v~ ~ { x. qf {p ny{p Urp Ryx zn A vlv npxY ny{p[ pK n yjx Yx. r ny{p nnpY { X{p[p {vzf rx ~p lv A vl ~ cxppn yx ~rl vf cxppn xp pvl, n{ppf A vl lv ~ѻx Yzj l R~yY rpYK xnp tp Yzjrx xp pvl ltp z.
{pp nnp ~vyr {. rpvp, Yl{p, ~vp, òx{p ~rlvxpf y X{p {pYy p [v RpYYf }Yy x. X{p nnp npxY - Yyzxp x{[ r~{ ny ~Krl {. 1907 {~M X{p[ rx { npxYf vpyK rnxY rpx Y. ~x R[r[{zp ~vp n~xy S[pvf rpp x. X{p r~z [x v[ny ~rx r DvpH nzxf x. RN [x WYfx. Y ~zzK Y n WYfv x. nnp[p S[pvf {h rp vzz { Yzjrx x.
X{p nnp Yh{p R{x W{Yf nzx S[p [p ~ {vz ~xy { upy~[ vyjx ~ x. X[ RYz vyjxp r~ cxppnl, Yzjrxl Yq{ {vz RpY ~xy v~ xppf rfp [l.
Uwz npp Yf {azxp p ryYny{p {pf S[p [pp Bp
Wf nnpv Yzp Yl Yy[l r WY p v~ N{x.
Rr Rrf t. Rr Yv p, Un fp p {pYp ty xpp
Wxpv xcp{ n R~ [xx. DvpH nzx Rxx vz nnp[ lxp z~ ~ Rx Rlp Yp, zp h{xY. W vj [~j |}glv RaMx{yx p~pG vp~ vl x. r~{ rpܻx v{p nnpfv htz rv}p zt. A nnpv S[pvf rp{ ~vlYvl, YKF cxM u[xf r ~v Yz {x~ SYl vf ry ~ Y xl ~l x. A Rp{ WYn~ p{~x l X{p nnpv YKF cxM u[xf r ~ѻxx. Wxp Yzjrx n{p r |}f ~vMmxY n, cxppn l{p r |}f ~vMmxY n zn. vzz Rxx{ rnN x.
K {p f X{p[ rx { vpyK ~rz rjl npxY vl {lp Rlp ~v[p ~ѻxx. X ly R[v nv ~v[ ~r{ Yfxl Y ~v cxppn Yzjrx nnpv nK pv zt v ~q Ywz{zz v[ny ~rx r cxyv y~mpxf xNN x. Wx Rn p{pp [zYѻx rp~z p.
DvpH nzx YKF cxM u[x ~vl { n~xy [z~~ |pl lv~ nzxf Rll {. A 1917 {~M x. W X{p[ {hl ~l[l [y{yx {x ~.. rMy vlx. X{p[ zp [y{yx {N x. Rxx vz r~z [x Yrz~fp {~ p{~Y[yx ~fx. WYz X{p }x ty Yfxl{zp ty{ rlrl R~Mv { YzxY [{. 1920 [jp {p f X{p nnpv Yz~K Yt Rvf rfp [l. A {p f X{p[ {x~ R{y nRf. T` {~M cxppn |pl lv~ nzxp R~{j x. A vp{y ù~{H nzxf Rll vf x. pvl vzz Yzjrx lv~ nzxv S[p [p ~ѻxx.
cxppn ù~{H nzxf xK rop Ryvj {x W [y rnxY vx. A X vp{yf [x vzv {l{x. WYz W zr{yx {x W Mvl { Wz.T. Jz~ vl x. cxppn ù~{H [y{yxY z~ [l Y Yzx l{~y. A l{~y Jz~ vl ・z [l Y R{~p l{~y n x. r~z ~v }xYv r S[pvf cxppnf ~ x. |}xpv IJh }x ty òxYyYK{zp Xf [zvY px. A lv[ lx Sl rvlv YzxY z~ p{ cxppn ù~{H [l Y l{~y lv[p vp U[l nf {h |}g YxY { Jz~ vl[ ~{j lv U[l n t t{ r~ YzY x Rl.
K {p f cxppn ~ѻx u x{px x. lx vz {yf X[ ~l R [x Ypl y{ vj [~j n ù~{H [l Y Yzx x. Rx ~xvp n ~z{ rxlv[ xxY { y zz{ n ~z{ x. Rx {yY X {p{p Xt {p YpYp xp Ryl R
Some one like u S[~ [lx xy z~ rxp{p {npx Yx. 1923 cxppn ù~{H nzxp ~v[ll x. Sp r~ ~ pY X[ ~l rvxp ry{ rmv rK{x y Xf v {x pl.
vp{y ù~{H l{~yY ~{ Yzx R{~p Y cxppn ~xy Yzjrx ~v[ ycx [y zf Rll vf RxK Yx. A Rp{ 1924 cp{ v~ nnpv rN| u[xp ~vl{ Yw lM~fp rM r [y zf Rl {. W p{~Y[yxv p{ Wxp np tlrl Yp lyvY }Yy lxY [l Y Rxxvz [yrr r~p lt Rp vy[ Yvf p{~Y[y tzop yno { ~ Sp R~ z~ rM tvY p{ [y nzxf Wppf rfp [llx.
X{p nnpv Yh Yz ~fv rz{Yyxp x. X{p X{p{v ~zYN v fv r yxp nnpY z~x. WYz X S[~ t~p ~zp Y zxppf rfp [ll x. X zx Ur~lvY Y r~ Yzx rMzKplN n [[K pp x. n{~yY YzxY [y ・z [l Yy R{~p u[x ~x [y{yp Rlp Yzjrxf rmv ~mpxl, cxppnf n{p ~mpxl x. cxppnf vzv rlv ztj tzrѻx ~noMm zf x. Sp r~ 1928 [zz |pl Rz~x~ nzxf rlvY zn cxppnf W r~z vov |{zf xl ~xv }xp S[pvf ~ x. r~z Yzxp r~ IJh }x S[pv n uy {x Xf x. WYz X[ Rry S[pK z~x ~ X r~z ~~p Rly vl cprxl{xf n rl{ ~ѻxx.
WYz rYf [zz ra[xf S p{z th vGf zf [vf p[yxf R [xp[p r xx. YY Yjppp n Rh{Y px. cxppn t S p{z K ra[xf { ~p WYz ~ry n~p. K Yzx WpK 1933 yj k pp r{lrlY r Yx. W Yl{yx, {MlYy{, ~rl x{pp rvjY p{ rY|Yx vpv tpp n {x cxppnv x. ~rl r { W z |l lp. rlxf tj rf ly. W X zx Yl pK Ur~x np{p y zrx cprx R[xY x. R[v rnxf rl rmv ~z r{lrl YzNx cxppn npxY x.
K Yzx {p f cxppn[ ~l ~x vz {ryx n~f R xppf x. 1935 ~x vz {ryx X~~  { zYN ~v ~vc rY}x W pxYxp ~v[ n ~r ~tqYK r cxppn[ ~l l Ryc y `K vl {ppf x. W~v 1935 W[zplx cMF yc[ vz v[zx {p{p vyf r{ Ul~{x X yol{ rY| vf Y YxY W~{N x. Wx f rz~ zop X{ RlRh[{f [l. ~y[np rflf Wp f cxppn xp pvx rn|x ry Sl cprx x. l{v Yx W~{ cxppn ~y [np ~x {~f RN n~ [jp cp [`Y ~v[.
1935 cxppn[ {vz ~xy[ Ru{xp r~ X [zz p[y ~uN Y{zz R~px ~q r{l{j Rly v{yjxf ly[ Yx. Wxp X cx [ll x. pvl Al ~v[v Xf Rz~x~ ・zp R~vf ~ x. A n|rzpxx [y {lxx nYY vf t t{f r~z R |}xp zrf tz Yyppf { ~x. W~ ry Rf {~yYf r~ 1936 X Sp R~{N x. r~{ ty{ tno rg|zNl Sp r~ tnn[v ò~ln{ r ・zl S[p{x x.
1939 [zzf p[yr{yxY rmv {yf ly [pp z. A vcp xlxp[ bpnx. { bpn{zp cxppn [zz rmv p[yr z~l, zY{ rmv ~z tno p[yr z~l ly. A {p f cxppn[ {x~ R{y ~ l.
zYx ~x p[yrxp Rlyp vv Slv rrl {. Wvpv zYxpv Sl rrl p[Yx [zzx. vv p[yr z~ YY Yl vfl, `Y {h vfl yjx Yy [. vv vcpx[pl, yc vpݲp[pl, X{p uy[pp Yfxl R{Y{v Yyp z~l p{{vp ~r r~YK {Mcpx Yyp z~l Szz ~. xp {h uy[l cxppn vz {yf vx px {h pxY t{f rl Yx. 1942 [zz Yzp f ~v[K {Mcpxf cxppn ~yuyxf [pp z. W ryvj yz x. ~y[ny [{ Yzx l Xf rzr, Yzp, Rp.RK. { {v|Y pxYx q R~y Yyppf x.
v~ ÃrxYf r~ Sp n~ { X 1943 z Rly v{yjxf Srl {N x. z v[ lfY, ~ vjY, l{lY pp v{yjxf W cxppn Rl tj t ~ܲYYx ~xv rv. v{yj p W. cxppn rycx x. r{x W~.A. r~ pN x. pvl l{lY x r bpn rl~vY ~Y~ Yy p{l Rly v{yjxY zt[l X Wxp cx[jx Yy z vcp vpݲ z~ 1944 rl x. X vz {l{f vpݲ{yxY z~ {yK vf yc vplj ~u{f r~x vzx{ ~ Xlrz{ [zp Rq ~x x.
cxppn[ {{~mxY lx {n[lv Yz rDEnx 1944 ~f 1947 Yzxx. WYz X U{ {zz~~ p{ {xp Y{y R~~Y vzzY {{ t r|pxY, RMtnxY {{~mxYx v{f [p RNx. AY rn[z rY}xY z~ r~ X WYz z UY~~ z~ p. zY {{~mxY S܃~x vpv {lvp rMzKpl S܃~x n W v ly {Ml[l M]lv Yl{ Yy Rll Xx. 1945 X Y Wv YlN Rx Yzx rx nlp. Wx l{vl ~{Y q p {Ml{.
1947 rmv rMzKpl v{yjx r{lvf yc vplj ~u{ ~y{p z. cxppn W{y [zz R~pxf ly[ {j x. 1947 ~rlKtM x{p r{l{j [zz R~px bpn v~K { bpn n~ y~x Rp xp [zz R~p p rmv rMzKpl{f l rl x. x 1952 r{ rMzKpl v v{yjxf X Srl {x p{ zY ~v ~vc rY}x RrY}YxY z~. W [zz R~pf Yhx zYp ly[ {j { bpn p n{p {yf n [zz vcp vpݲ z~ rl x.
1953 R[v hHz ~~pxY [zzf rڻx x. A vl vz nvY rzq{ X r[l ~ p{ zY ~v~vc rY}xp cxppn pyr x. Wlp rfp ~{p rMzKpl vpݲ{yxY z~ rY}x j X r{~N vf ~ n|rzp rY}xYf tK RrY}{Y pl. vv n~{ ~. vv ~v ~vc rY}Yxpf ~l Yy. x x. cxppn vzp ~z nv ~vlp r{l ~ѻx x. WYz X tjhypxY n|rzpx |{~ pY x. pvl Yz xlv X ~z rvjY yc u}{ Y xlx xp ~m{yxf pwy x. Al ~v[v u} ryvj pK ryvjY ~[p tjhypxY n|rzpx ~l vcp WY~l ryvjf {z x.
1956 r{ v vyjx {p f cxppn Wxf Srl {x u} ryvj X~~ vcp WY~l ryvjp x. W{y n X [zz R~p cx [ll x. WrvjY p{ tjhypxY ycx Rorp Rvl{yx z~ n {yK pp x. A l RpY Rx Yyppf p{ ~lppf r{ v n Yyppf ~p vNN x. {n[l Rorp r~~Yyj ~ Y x. zY{ ~v r~z ny{Yfv { Yzx t~ [xY y{Y vf {hr{Y RvYN YxM ~opx v[ WY{ RywN x. Wf X{ t Rx n{z p nppY ~ ~zY{ x.
pYf t~ [ n~ zY}xY y n~ zY}xY!
W~v X ny{p t~ vv xp xp ~ylz pvxp Rvvf rfp [l. nnx nzYy r{p nY |{nz t{f rlvl, [y nz rj Yzx l {fr [vl ~ {x X[ vlv. 1959 rvj {p f tjhypxY ycx Rrvj }Yyl{zf vj np t. c{ cY ~v[x rtq r|p vl t. K Rly 1959 rvj {p f tjhypxY ycx Rrvj }Yyl{zf vj np t. c{ cY ~v[x rtq r|p vl t. K Rly 1959 ~rlKtM 25 { {yoxY[ { ryp R[v W~.hJ.RM.. tjhypxY vl lxp ~v[ll x.
A {p f ~upxY{ ~ ~.r. n ~z{ rYy zt [vf W[zplx tz [~ ~ѻx x. ~xv ~ { vv ~v ~ p{ R[v{yxY rl Yy [l xl{ t. A ~q t pK xcp {{ n R{~p yjx {x A {p f ~upxY rnx {h tzp ~ YjhxK zY Rxx { cxppn npxY ` R[v x xl t{x. tjhypxY R[vlv[ xp rx ÃrxYf r~ [zz cxppn npxY n~ zYN r~{p R[v z~ RjhYy ~M Xz{M [jzY Sx {yK pp x.
R[v vl ~v[v X ~ lll{xY yf ry rY|xf rlY Rly r{l rzpxY 1959 XYltM 6 vxK ~f rp{N x. npxY ycx n Rll rfl RMtn [j {ppf { YzY [l px. v~ Ãrxp rMzKpl{ ~y{ vf X yjx Yx. Al ~v[v Q zY n~ rY}xp R~ { X zY rclpl{ rY}x pp p{ rY}xY Yy [ll x. X {l rY} rY} unxp ly{ Nap [z RN x. 1960 vMl 19 r{ v{yjxp cxppn R[v{yx bpn y~x R~ lpp [zz R~p rycxf rl x.
r~v WlY p{lp [p ~ Ryzx[ vpyxf [x cxppn ~yrr YGfvl, RK t[xl, RpY Rhv Yhvl [p R[v lplyp Szz R~{p zrx RjhYy Xz{M [jzYf uy Rr~ [zz Q u{p tz RN x. Sp r~ Yvy{Y n [p [zz W܃~Y ~mp ~pny lp bxyr [l Yyppf rfp [l X Rl S{ t vnzp yf ry {f {pnpN [xx.
rl { Wcr ycx lv~Yf r~ R~m{y{ x 1960 cz ~{ rMzKpl v{yjxY r{l{p t{ rY| Y. M] {f {pnp{ v{ [ r cxppn [zz R~pf pv xcp uy pp x. Wv yjlvY v{yjxp X [zz R~p xl p xl vpݲ vjhzx rY}x R~p [ll x.
1963 p{KtM n p{ { p cxppnf nnx |{nzx Ur rpl~{x ~l ~ (D. Lit) ~Kvp Urx rp. 1965 xl v{yjx. W RaMx cxppn npxY Q zY n~ ~vc{ rY}x pK Rl rY}xY rf{ [ll x. 1965 vMl ~ n{ r{l{ Wv v{yjxp n cxppn cx[ll x. Al ~v[v Xf ~{n| Rv rnx rp. 1970 v v{yjxp n cx [ll x. x 1977 v v{yjx [zz R~px ~q ~{p RrY}YxY z~ Srl { X Sp rycxf rl x.
Wxf bpn rl~vY ~Y~ Y X Wxp n rycx x. r~tf p{ cxppn [p [fv |}gYyjxfl, RuxapYyjxfl [xx. R{~px lv {p{p lv lMY Yy cxppn pN x. A 1979 p{l Rly v{yjxY r{l{p z~ x. W{y WY~l cY rY}xp Srl { lv Sp cx[p [zz vcp vpݲ{yx z~ {yK pp x. 1986 F.RM. cx{Mop ycx ~vrYy Rvl rnxf rl x.
1989 v v{yjx X{ Wcr cY zx~lN vzfv Rll Y. A Rp{ 1989 v{yjx Wcrx tly R~p [jpp pN x. pvl n{ {yf Wcr cY zx~l{f vpݲp pK Yyp znn 1944 ~f {{~mxYx xcpx Y RaMx cxppn npxY pvx p{x. cxppn[ n|rzp lx Wz~ ~{uY vyjxYf rl vf Yfxl v vyf n|rzp ~ayx r|p Y xl S܃~[l R{~m{.
A cxppn[ n|rzp lx ~v[v x. pvl ~ pY rcp lxp ~v p[ll x. pp Yvyx { UYz RfxY U Xlrz {p lY X ~x lny bpn xYxp[ ~v Bp Wr{Yfv RN [xx. X[ |v {frp p rp rջxp xrj R~yj R~Y ~p yllY x.
~x l Yzx l RY WY, nY, lp xp ~x rvZl n|rzpxv rvjY Yy[l vv n|rzp ryYyx Rp r~ {~yY {p [vp Y{y Yy WYn~ p{~x Rp l vx ly { lxp ~v [llx.
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