@

 
   
HOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 


Rvy ~vy
~xzz{ xlpf rpY { {zr yz

Rvy {vnv

Rrr lv Spp xplK t lyp {x~ x. r{z thr~~ { Rrr pY R {һ[p Wp {zN RKv[ RYxf rp [z nz[ xf ~f R~ n~ tz[p ~ѻx x. nz[xf ~f tzp f R~ Sl rz{ Rh~q rpx. W Rf{Y rxf Yzp n{~.
RKK vf q Yhz npp.
Yvn v[ yllyp rl q Yhpp. Sz{l xvY p JyvY p thr~~ [p npp RKv Yyj{p { x.
p vf q Bp ! vf q Bp ! x xp ny{ WY [f Rkppf rfp [ll x.
ny{[p RKvf JyvY pl. r vzz[ v{ ~ry SzzK [p qf npp Rxxz RYYzl lll ~v[ kp vzzf p {p rUh { tz Upp x.
v[ rl pk Spp. vv q Yhz nppK x RKv Rrr p lt Y~~x rllf [~ [ny R{l{xf ~ pRrr ~v[ Y~Y~ [{x. p Rrr [ YYYY n [p zf RN x. YYY nz [ ll Yy ~yv Yrf [~[l X nz[ [ Uhf th[N x.
Rrr vllx Spp v q Yhz nppK. xp YYY [p nz Rl{zf nv Rppf rfp [ll x. nz Yy ÃrxY Y v {fj x. Wl q t lpvx xfv A {zN q tj nz[ Rlrlyf XJt. Rrr v plyYf q {fp f Rz [vf BpYp Uhtz[p ~ѻx x. Ãr ~yxY Ul~ Y pRrr YYY vf Rlx x.
a YYY [ v. q Yhpp t. xp X nz [~p t~~ x.
RKv YYY [ tj pK q Yhpp tj pn? x Rrr RKv n~ tz R~N x.
XN v[ rl. x RKv Rrr n {h[p [f [x x.
Spr~ Rrr ~pY q Szz kN pl. q Yvf p Rrr y Ul~x ~v Rrr ~vYf rl{j x.
q Szz Yzz Y K nhJty r vzzf Rxxz RYYzv p{ np. ~ylzxf r{z Rxl [K Rxl Rrr x Rvl X r{z thr~~ x. [ ~ܲYYx Sv{f pp r {zr pv r~y [Kvpx rzzlXx R~th r[h v[ny Urp Rrr[ ~t pv Gѻ[h [v[ pY n ~z{ x. Yyz~ n ~z{[l, llf{ [v[ ~ャ[l rz n{ ny{ { Rrr Urpp WYn~ p{~x l vx p{ { t~rp{Y x.
ra Yzx rfp v Rrr rz{Yyx. N{l nv x. Yy{l Yy nv x. l{YYy x. Rrr[ rx WYz [K ~ vp U[lYvY t rn[zx {N x. Wx r~z [~ zt vl RorpxY p{ Rly ly rl xvp xj Yy[l v pvY X ~plYx x. W~v ~x nhJty Yh rlf pv lܻxp RYy xv lvv Y xl xx yjx Y Yyz~ n ~z{ Rrrf RYy x{N x. Spr~ X{ r~zYf x x{N [jzY S~Yzfx {zrf WYz r~zY tj pl. pvf tj rn[zY {~Y r{l{j K [jzY S~Yzxx. vz px txvp ~yvp ~y~ [zzzz [p RrrD ~v[ r~zf [x Rrr Spr~ Rxxz r~z xppf rfp [ll x. vzp vzp Rxxz[ Rl Rzz[p Rz y nv t Anjhp W[h v[h [x Y pp Rxxz[ Rl[~ nv l{v W[h v[h v RywN x. [ny Rr~ fY RKv ~v[ Rvpr vv qf rp{ x [~ l [z[xY qf Rly ~` tz ~ѻx x. Rp v[ t rl xp kp {[p Wp RKv Sxf rp p{l Rx ly {j x. v~ y U pY v{f rl{p f Rrr Yy R nhJtyYK zx~l{.
Rrr S~Yz [x {~y lp. pY vz [ylv ~v[ Ry{zY RYy[l X lvf ryvf [ylvf p t{ xp X tp t~ {N x. { N{z Rlf [l [ylv Rrr n~f yp fl [zzzz Ãzz [~[l Rrr ~ѻx rp Yvyxp rflf r. W r~zp rp R Rrr Spr~ ~pY r~z [x pl. X{ r~z xvf ~vl c[lY [ny lt [K{l ~ѻx pl. pvl rx[p xK xK n {p {y R~ p U[l Y YzY xpf lyvY lKrl [ r{lK R ny{Y t{f Yvp rlx. X[ n`YyYK Rvy{p S{~ ~ t npY Rrr xf vy YpY {[x. Rrr{ q vj Yy{ppx. xppf rfp [l. pvl Rrr Yh R{x ~fv vj Y xl xx Y~Y~{Y Yzp ~fv [nyl, pxl Rly n r{l. A Rp{ A {p fl |pl [r{lK RYy [p ~ Yh ny{ [K rp~z vj vf Yfxl x.
A WYn~ p{~x ~~ x. Wf Yh Rrr[ {x~ R{y nlp. rzp ~zppn rjp ~p ~ vhYy r vf Rll Yy[l Rrr[ r pvx {x {zr oKvn~~ x. Ur~Y zz{p ~x n vj vp r~l fp f oKvn~~ ~vpyxp[ ~l rp~z tv{, t[, oMv|z{ r~Yy [K YYyGfp ~zzK Yyp {z S~vllp n Rxxz x Yp lfr n [~ ply x. W{ ~zzYYy ~lz r { WYpY Up{p~ rzRl Xx x pp ~ Rxxz[ RYvll vn RqpYhx rp Xxf t~~ x. Rxxz ~v[ xf ~zzK Y lv ~lvlv RqpYhx Yh {lM [~[p xvf Shx x. Rr~ [p Wx Rq[pp z~ Rxxz rll Y n oKvn~~ Wx YpYf p[p {lM [~[p xp n~ tz ~ѻx x. Spr~ Rxxz n~f vjYv p { t{ X{pf r X{p z{v ~yvY txvY [p{[p t [ny [x x. Rxx[p Ryx R~ RKv p{l rp~zf [p [xl lv lx pYy[pp t{f k {zrvp r~ oKvn~~ ~vjyxpf RYvllp {{l xl vj vf ~x.
p{l rp~z lxf y ry { oKvn~~ ~vjyxp rz, ~z, ~~Yl pv ry[h ~vp~y pxp[p vpYf U[ll x. Spr~ 1927 {zr ~f Yw rvf oKvn~~ xpf ~x. A pxp oKvzY rjp xfl oMvl ~{xf ~Ktpo vf x. A {p f oKvn~~ xpf {x~ R{y ~~. lyj x p Up{p~ Yw r r~ oKvn~~ xp pvx {p~ Yy {zr yz xp pvx ul vf rfp [l. oMvl ~{xf ~Ktpo { yz xp {Yl oMv n|YxY z~ YYzpv cprx x.
oMvl ~{xp r~ pxYl R{~{z p{lp [p S[v xj Yy [vf ~ yz xpf WYz nY} n ~ [l [y{yxY { R~. l[yc pv nv cY vlvxY t UrYy Y x. Ryj[l{ ~yz xY [l Yyp ~ yz xpf rf~ly zYx [p p [vf {x ~z cx r{lrl. Up{p~f oMvl ~{xf Yw rvf {x n ~z cx r{lrlf vjYv xp{p zx zr rY ~ x.
yz xp |{nz Rorpx ~q xv Yyp znn W{Yf zY |{nzx S[~ R|x Rr{ ~ RaMx T.Wp.~. h{xY vl x. A Rp{ l[yc vl[ h{xY vl[ UrYy Urn~ R{ l{ rhK Yy zphp vGxz}p u[xf yz x r ~x. Sp ~vl { Up{p~ 1936 Ur RrY}YxY z~ Yw x{M~ Yzxf tp. vyf vzx {~[lx ryj {zN Y[ ~ܲYYx [p[f xp |z ~{xY Yyp znn vYzx. WYz {v|Y Rn~ y Up{p~ ~v[ {v|Y pxYxp n ~r ~tqYK r{l{.
1941 Sp RMx u} rtq |~lN Urx p[l yz xp zYN |{nzxYf Rl { rmv uY}{ { Rly |{nz UrxY zt[l rv uY}{ n x. K Rly Yzx n|rzp ~ ~vc Yfxl YM { R{opxY xv Y Up{p~ 1939 f[l ol Yzzx {p{p ~fpY{ p[ ~x. A lp nzYy r{pf Rvf [x ~M{e ol x zt [v Up{p~[ r x ~ { |} cx[jx. K Rly ycx |}l{xY zt YzYf |{nzxf Rll{ S[vf yz xpf R{~m{ U x. A nM|p |yn Urx ~n x. pvl Al ~v[v f[l n{p zY ~[vx ~ Wx Rlyv[ YhYrrz x.
{y S[K tzryll Yh { Up{p~ p{l zY{f rj nzYy r{p RaMx{yxY z~ Yfxl Yyppf x. A Yzx l nzYyx vx { cY ~fp{z ry [vpYy{ {x yz xp x. A Rlp n|rzp uY} ~fp, n~ Rorp ~fp ~ 1947 v v{yj ~fp { ~{ |}x. A Rly Up{p~ ~~p S܃~x vpv uY}{[ Uyvx ~ vx n Rz 1946 rlY zx. Wx uY}{[ Uyvx pK x. Wx S[~ Rl u} ÃrxYf r{Mlpx Yy Rl. K Rly 1947 yz xp vy ryxpf zY x. rz~ RlRh[{f rlx. pht Yyny{zf rfz{p z x. A ~{p yz xpf pK ~ Rr{Y px.
K Rly RaMx Urxf ~pK { yz xp 1950 RaMx Urx p[pp. A ~q Up{p~, zx Ur tpop {x zY{ t ~vx S܃~xx. Al ~v[v r~x ~Mtp |{nzxf [~ tno rMx}j Yfxl{z xvf yz xpf r| ycxp |}l{xY zt. W Up{~f r{yj roplv Yfxll {x 4 { |l{M}x Rx[ RaMx rnxjp ~p ~~Yl t~p zxp zn RuoMv ~vDax pK vxp tno [pmx r| t~f r{Mlpx vx. A ~q yz xpf {~y 10 Y [l x. r~x ~ Yzx Up{p~ zx tp { oMvx (What the Buddha taught) [pmx zYx u} 17 Yf r{Mlpx { tno nM|px rtq |}f YxY z~ ~zY.
K Rly Yzx {p {y zY{f r yz x 1965 Ur~Kr x. 1966 nnx |{nzx UrYzr rnxf rl{. pvl 1969 xl Wv lplp Szz R~ { yz xp p{l {yY r|xf [x. A oMv |~lx rMx}j Yfxl{z xvf x. K {p f RvYN pMl {~fMp pv ò~x |{nzx tno nM|px rtq rgxY RYy W rmv vaMx{yx xf ~~~Y W rzp RYyx z{ ry ~xp ~x. RpܻK A ~q ly[l ~~~ {x {zr yz xp x. Wv lply ~lp ty[l Up{p~ rmv {l{f RvYN |{nzxYf ~t tno oMvx p{ p.
1974 zphpxf rxf [x yz x XY~MH |{nzx tno nM|px rtq vaMx{yxY z~ n RaMx Ur Urn|Y{yxY z~ n Yfxl Yyp zt. 1974 ~f 1985 nY{ ry {~y WYY Up{p~ zphpx vzYf[p o oMv rMx}j Yfxl{z yl{ ~x.
v~ r|xf, RvY{f, W[zplxf R xyr yf{z y|xYf {p {y R [x yz xp r~ Yzx zY{f rj RlzYGG Ylvݒ R{~x [hp{ W r {. Spr~ {~yYf {l{Y zphpxf [~ v~ nY lpY [l vl A Yzx l r~xf [~ ry ly r{yp vj[~vl ~lY Yy[p ~x. Up{p~f r|x vpv W[zplx n |} ry{~xYf {yr~n x.
Ylvݒ R{~x ~f R[Y, cY, ~~YY, òxvxp vzYl{x [p Yfxl Y yz xp vyf tno rz |{nzx rfvf ry[ x. A A Yfxl{z Up{p~ R~y Y n|rzp r} pxYxp ~v[ Up{p~[ oMY rrl rfz{ [l Rlvp o YfYl ry{ n yz xpf ~ n|rzp rY}xY ptj Rly A Bpv n|rzpexY[ q ~v pyY n Ypv rY| K rynnY n Up{p~f x.
zY{ t~vx S܃~x, tp { oMvx, uY}{[ Uyvx, RuoMvx, ~vDax, Ullv rc{, ~lnx, ~z tno vcpx {l NnpxY ~ [pm Rl pxYl u}{zp r{p ~`y rY|{zf zxpzn zr y|x. K v zrxYv YrYy Rll tno oMvx [wp [ v r~x. tyv ycxp yz xp R[[v rjl rnxp n rnp ztN x.
1996 {~M zphp p{y ~f Rr~ {hv vp r~ yz xp[ ~Z lll{x Yvxp r. R~r{ ~p Rlyly Up{p~f |z YKrpxY R Y ~vY {x yz xp[ YrYy, xy, R{l{Yy z~ Sl M] YzxY ry ~{x Y ~v[ vMp rpp vl[ Ru{x. yz xp ~v[ Sqf lMY lMY Yy [vf |Yx tj WYv rn[zx { X[ vyjx yz xp Sl SYvp ~Z Rp rvf l x.
z{ t xlp |{~ Yyp r p[Mcp Rx[ xp r{yp[p r~ z{ r { |yn tno r{yx {zr yz xpx. Rr܃l oMxxp xl{ Yfxl Yy v z{v r[l tnvlY t{f rl {zr yz pK K R~v~v r{yxj {~y Rp{Yl v~ lyYl p p{xYl Rx ~r q WYn~ p{~x Rpl ~rlKtM nRf { yݲ p{xf rvj Q cx{Mopry yz Rr{l {.
Up{p~[ Rpv Yv rlx zx t Urn~ RYyfv rrp Tf r~ r~{yN RlzYGG YwY[ N Ylvݒ R|vx R[Y {l{l r{l{ tzz Ypll Rp rcl~{x r{l{p z. z{ ~xz xlp Rly ~jY vp ttj {zr yz xp ~x l Yzx l WY {npY, vp Y WY ~lzzY r{ Wf {h Rnl Rnf {h fl R[p x.
~Y~ Y
vp Y[Krx