@

 
   
HOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 



{xM vy Yy p[p lx p h~vp

~vy Urpv ~|} Y|zxYf YK x. np [ nrllp p xx xppl W Y|zxp r ~px rfpv n nY{p t. WK.A. h~vp n K [jx YpY xx { Y. X WK.. SzYfY~ RpH SzYѱYz~ Rr{yxx. Xf z YMY {h [p Upp{Y tj r Yz rfpvx.
Al zxl WYY ~zzK zzzK {p t{ pp {Ճѻx zx ~zzv h~vpf lpK Y.
r Yz Rr ѻx rpM. lll ~... WY vp{yxY xf ~{x Y. RKv Rr{ tz[p [nyvx ѻx. A p v[ {h [p lyv v~zzp ѻx. RKv [np rff [x pK A rf xppx. A {[ n{~ [p v R [[p x. RKv [xf r~~ v p[{x vzzz{x YvyxYf z {p{. {xM Rvjz tzJ rll Yyz tzp WY lvx v Yypp. v R~{p A{ Y.
h~vp RG rpxf ly xn lll x{p |v [llx. Spr~ K Rx r {x RKv[ [v { rzvhzzx.
Xx Yz [ny l {{z tj. A Rxvp lvx Rr {l {j. Yv v n{~Y lll[ rYG WYf nz yrxz WY~x rpY [ll. A{xp {xM, fp~~fM {[ A{ [ll. Al RKv K{ Yz [{. A v YypG {nn [ xz txfvx.
[np vp lyK lpK Y n h~vp[ z YMY |zrx ply {x pl. {~Y n{~f R r Yzzpf h~vp p{v t Yp. A ~z Uxp, {~Y Yh Rxf tzJ rll Yy [ppx. A Yz r r lyj{zf WY WY z RzY yf vN{ Xf vlYx. Yvxp Yzx [ [~ h~vp U~~ rf n q [llx. Wlp r~~ vfM vYY rgvz{Y yppf ylprM YMY nzxf Rl x. Wlp pxlvY pv ztj n rx[Y pv rtq rr~xY Xf R x. x{p[ [{z {xp Yy nppfl fY X [xx. [ny z UrYyj [z{ppfl p{l ~ Yyppfl pxYl Rl tzK Yyppfl X rfp [llx. YMY nzx rgvz Yzx {~y nY. W xp Rlylyv {h S n{~f [MF WYY {hY x [llx. W n{~f yrxz ~~Y vp{Y zt. K {h{zf Xf l{ x{Y n ~ѻxx. K 88-89 Yzxx. u}jx { [p tj A Yzx t~ o{pxl {z{f Yyj pl. Al rzvhzz ~f xp zxY p[ ylprM [x K [p t Upp{ ~vx. S n{~ {h vp ztj yrxz ~~p xY S Yy [p z rrm [p zx{ rlrl n X zf [llx. R{y R{~px X rMG fxK Y [ycxv rMj Yzp ~{YxY x. A Rppn oMvylp vl[ .RpH . vfM~x.
Rppn vllx h~vp[ {h [p p Uppx. A pv {fr ~ {h zt ylvzp cMvp fY Rxlpx {y RorpxY n zt [vf v[ r ppx. p{ll [ycx {hf r h~vp Rl{x ~q [pp {p{zp l{ l{l rY}j Yx. {p{z z rrm{z YzY xK XY~xH tv ~ ~{p n}{zf ly rxK ~x.
Rppn vllx v[ rY}j{zf Sh {p Yy pp. v[ {h Ryxf `Y np v{ x[p RpH vfM~ WYf R{. Xx Yz v vfM ~xYz{zf {xM pM~ WYY {. A {jf v rvjxp Yy [pp {lYvY tj p.
YzxY Y Rl tzK{z rszxY xf W {xM pM~ WY [ppf Xf r{pYv zt. Wx xly rx zx [vp Yyp rrmx. Rlv tx~YzxY {{l Yz [l {p f rrmx XY~xH tv ~ zx [vp K n} R N. A {p{f ~ Yyp rrm zYN Y{l N pl. rfyf{z }rnpx Yl A{ [p{x S zY xflx. Al h~vpf lxv v rrmxY [ppf r{p {xx.
T`f h~vpf Bp Y K{ v rvjxp ~ {qrf Srl Yyppfx. Al W{ppY vf Rl G z vnz tj pl. h~vp n~[l {ppf yjx Yx. z YMYxY z~ n~[l {ppf ~xzz ~pK Yy [l pvl X[ ~ YHrl vjx tj YKYy {|x. W ~ YHrlp n~[l {{l lvf ` vf R{| lpf ` {ppf p Nxx npp xp Rx Rply `{xx. K ~ X n| x xl Rxlpx {l [~ Wx {y Yy nppx Szz ~ѻxx. ly ly W [xl A Rx ~zzzY Y{x pl. K Yzx h~vp { ny{p nnpY n Yzzf WYl ~x. Rl G t v ~lxYv n~ [vpf xn{ t Rly X x{p n S{l ~ ~ r{z phll Yy [vl }Yy x. Xx Yzxl h~vp{ npp xp Rx [nyfv X ~x RN xp {p{z Rl{x ~nx. A vnz{zp xY zt [l Rly, Yw xp Wp Rlyly Rv{ [pl [ny ~fv {xM pM~ Nx.
K Yz v nr {xM pM~ ~ Yl vvvx. AYf Y Y Szv { {pp rfp [pp Yf vf lj yf px A vnz Rr Ry[p rxf ~p~ WY rfp [pp Bp xz. Y{nl UnN{f fr Rppn vllx vf K {zNl UnN{f x. X N{ Rr~ X[ Rxlpx {hf Wpp xz. {pv YvyxY vf z v[ {h Y Yy [pp vf UnN Y.
Al K Yzx h~vp vj p rop [f{Y t. A {xM pM~ WY ~Kvl rp xl {xM zYN {qr pvx. W ~Kvl rf zt [K X Y {qr ܻtp {xM{zf pl Rzr vx. K f {Mj [p{ rrm v h~vpf }Yy YMxxY { Rly {pl YpYf l{v Wx ~ Yy [vl Rr~ x.
A p n{~Y v
ACL Rxlpxf [x. [p v[ R{|l{ N{. A Rx {xM zt npp Yv {j. AY vl{y Rzz v[ {h tzz [x. A [vp v {p{pv A A {Mj{zp xl {xM pp.
A h~vp[ {xM pM~ WYf q Yz n~{Y zt Yzxx. {xM pM~ vz lxv Rly RlUnN pp X[ qx. h~vp[ vzzl l{l YpYl r~{ UnN{f r Rly WY {xM pM~ WYY yrxz x~x rpYf Rz Yx. A{ R~yKYyjxl ztzx Mvjx vl h~vp l{v Yy [llx.
rff ppl l{l vnz {x{p p v lxv A{ Y. vz Yz {xM pM~ nY lpY t[xYf [p rxp Yh{zf [x. r~~ t~ WY [p YY y rl{zf Yj{. A v WYYv v[ pv, zrpx Urn~ rܲY{Y Rl Y.
pY tK YfxllYf xp zxY rj h~vp[ }rnp Yj nppf ryp x. lvp[ Mvjxf {qr x [ppf BpYp ~ Xf Tf WY rxpv WY` x. Al ~{x p~l nx. W zx h~vp[ th rf{[p [x pvl ~lxY{l Rr ztj pl. lv U[zYf R~ { t{ p [pp f X rv {{ {x. T`f X zYN t rn|{z {qr ~x [xx. Xx Yzx {xM pM~ rfyp [p{xl ztp Rj{K{zf rv. A WYY yrxz ໅~n~Y rvj { Rly Rj{K Yy [p{ [vf v~ lpY{l R{v {|xp [l x. h~vp[ Mvjxf S SzvY tj n {qr rtq [f{ Xf lpv tzrNx.
K Yzx X xly r Rl{x Yyppp[ ~[vx n ~vYx. W ~vYx ~x npv h~vp[ p{ Mvjx ul Y. {yY ylprM ~{xYxYf h~vp[ {xM pM~ WYY x tx~Yzx Rl{x Yy nppf ~pK {n X Wx rY}r Yx. A {p{f rY{llp WYY Xv [pl W ~[vx t~pp YpYf t. Wx n|xp [p{{Y xx X { t. W tj h~vp[v {xM pM~ WY. vpy y rlp nnp[ vz RYy WYl Yy WK.. SzYfY~ RpH SzYѱYz~ z~ vjx Y pvx Wz~v t. Wx p [vf Xf Rr~ px.
A v[ {xM pM~ WYvx. A {jf v[ pv, zrpx, Urn~ rܲY{ [j~ np{ Wvf v YHrlY S{l Yy tj. v[ pv Yrz v[ Mvjx n|xp [p{{Y x Yjp Yf vf rv Nnp{Y pj.
A R{~mN X tnvx nr YMxzxf [~ ~x Mvjx rtq ~YxY n zt [llx. Wx zt [K r{ A ~Y rlx Xf {~xY x. ~ty[v{ ~{Mop tY{ Xf jx vnzY n Rpvl Yy ppx.
K Yzx ylpry RoYl{ YMY rj RYxp n Xf ~x[x z. {ry YvpYyj rgvz{Y yNl W Rp[x xflx. Spr~ Xf {ryx ~ z~ YvpYyjx Yy [vf R{~m{ U x. K 2004 {M}x rvjx. |zr 2004 rnM|pxf n Xf ~u[ {ppf R{~m{ zt. A R{~m{l X[ {ryx |Yvl Yy [vf r{zY x. YzY [l {p f Yzxf [l {pxp {K [x n Yvxp ~p~ { {n h~vp Xfv x {pxY n zxf [llx. X[ Mvjxf R{| xpl ~l r{ X l{v Mvjx Yy [llx.
zY} lyY rvj {x {p fMpz~ òKrp fz xplx ~ n~p rvj v Yy [vf h~vp ~vl {xx. Rp ~{Y r~ n tq{ [llx.
cpr ~Kvp{zp r{ rK zt h~vpf {c YMvpl vjhzxp n t UnN UrYy zt. crpx, px Spx{ R yf{zp [p{p vfM ~xYz {p{p vz 190Y rvj {xM pM~ h~vp pf Mvjx Yyx. K {p f Rrpxpx vf n ~pK Yy Rl. R{~m ÃrxY v ~rY}{f zY {p Rlyv U~~ v{p xl {xM pM~ h~vp v{x.
~~ Yl{fl Rp{p {xM vy {z n xz. A {[ lvx Rllfv v {xM vy {jl [ [K{zf zY {p{. Rr ~rY}{f zY Yyz lvx vx {qrf Yl Yypp.
W n|[l p Slv ~{p v K {ryx RyKu Yyr p lvx vf K lyK yY Wpp ztj. BpYvY ~ Upp{Y ܻtp{ pK lvp[ ~px ~t Yy [pp tYvY p. K [vp toY pK tvx. Al Upp{ RlpK ~MmYl{x ` Yy [pp r{p.
p} vlyRyD
bxyr
rr |pl yl