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Rvy ~vy
Rul ~prxY ~ R{Y n|rzpexY { ~M cp Ylz{z

Rvy {vnv

A WYn~ p{~x rN ~z, v~zK Yzz ~vxx. W ~z pxYxp Ãr npYv ~yuyxf n rl {. ~yuyxf rl {{p Rly lv vv n ~ѻxp lyj R{x ~ r~z ~~{Y r~z xf Rxt{p ĻN x. W{Yf ycx nzx S[p [p ~ X ~x vv ~yuyxp n~ Yy [vf r~zp ~v[pp f {x~ R{y nRfY Yh{~K lyjx.
~z - v~zK Yzzx ~y uyxf [l vv WYz ~ ~z pxYxY { W. RM. ~ppxY x. X Jy [vf r~z xf ~vp A yt lyjx {x cp zxpz Ylz{z x. cp Ylz{z Urpp WYn~ Rf~x Rpl Rrz v~ ly{ rxpnz x. X[ rx cp Ylz{z (c}g) { Rly v{ Rz~ R[z pK {{ x. WYz ~ nY} rz~ rY}Y{yxY { Yh cp Ylz{z[ rx RxYx p~zYp xYxf Yfxl Yyp RxY z~ r~no{ ~ѻx x. r{z {vz ny{ { cp Ylz{zf tz c~p ~ rh pp ~nyxY ~nxY n ~ѻx x. Ylz{z ryry ~z S܃~x Sl Rl x[xY ~f r{l Wp yj|y ryryY z~ ~zY.
Ylz{z Yh Yz r~z [x Yw ycx nzxf x. Rorp Yfxl{zfl {h X[ rvZl{ ztj IJh{zf x. v~ Yzx [{p f Ylz{z[ rx ~xv Ru{xf rl {N x. Wf Yh Ylz{z[ {x~ R{y p{x. X[ v{ { Rz~ R[z Yh ny{p ܻnpY ~v[ l x. K R{~mN X{p[ ~xf rڻx Rp ~{Y p{ W. RM. ~ppxY ~ Rzp R[z x{x. Rzp R[z Ylz{z[ v{[ WYY~ Urp ~nxx. Rx { ~ѻx W. RM. ~ppxY ~v[ x.
vv[ Y{yjx xfl Rorpx ztp {~y [jpY [{ v Ylz{z {x~ R{y nRG ~xv ycx nzxf Rxt{p ĻN x. A 1915 ~z - v~zK Yzzxf ~yuyxf [l W. RM. ~ppxY ~yp n~ Yy [vf {~vf R{| ~ x. 1915 r~zp R~{p f X tY~, rrp, f~, òYG xp IJh{zp r~z Yr rpp ~~{Y{ ~ѻx x. vv ~yp n~Yy[l r~ Ylz{z {y Rorp Yfxl ~q W[zplx tz [x x. W XY~MH |{nzx Yx~GaMD zf Rl Y}YMvx y 1920 p{l zY{f rj lv vrx Uyvxp zn ShYhK xj v xj x.
Yh Yzx ~fv Ylz{z[ { vprx tj v ~{xf x. W~ vzpv p[yy}Y ~{xf tj 1923 rtz ~pYxf tj x. {~p {~y v ~{x Sf p`j 1924 pp rnx ~f 1929 Yrlp{yxY z~l, 1933 KcM{yxY z~l. 1940 pp YMpz{yxY ~ 1942 YMpz{yxY z~l U~~K ztN x.
Ylz{z[ lx {hl Yr rpj R[x {x v ~{xfl {h X[ n|rzp [vpv[ x. X ~x {yp {p W. RM. ~ppxY . W~. ~ppxY xp nr Rp{v xp n|rzpxf R [x x. A Rp{ 1931 vzv yc vplj ~uN Yyj[z R~px cx[l X Yyj[zf Y ~{x YlyK n xl, 1936 n{p yc vplj ~u v{yjxp ly[xpv Yyj[zf l rl {N x. 1936 ~f 1947 lY Yzx l Yyj[z R~px xcpx Yyp Wv rn|x RMY, ~vcxx, ~~YY, RorY, R[Y xp ~v R|xYv ~{Mop Yfxl ~ Y x.
1933 . W~. ~ppxY vl n| [l { R{~mN Y}YMv ~ ShK Rv z~ Yfxl vf Ylz{zf x. A ~q X l t nY}l{ ~v Wv {~M v . W~. ~ppxY vl ~z~K Y ppx cprn {ryx RyKu Yf R~{nK Yfxl ~ v n Ylz{zf uy x. 1933 Ul~{|xp RyKu { ppx cprn {ryxf X vz ryN ry{Y [p ry{z rpp [~Y Yr v . Wv {ryx ~MmY Yy [vf X[ R{Yl{x, YMx|yl{x tp tzrp z.
1936 {~M Ylz{z vlf z ~n| ~ ycx r~no {h Rv oyx x. vv p{ rnx {h uy[l p ~f yG r{ o vv{l, rzK, cz z xcp Yv, [{p lfr{z xj vfl, Rp Svfl {~j x. l{n zY}rp cz ztz xcp Yvx òxlvY v, rynx |{nzx [hp[z ~v, Yz p{ rzv, Yw {yx, [ ry, ylvzp ~f vyf{ nY{ rz nl{ vM[xY ~ ~Y~v, ylvzp [{p lfr ~{Mopx v, Yyj[z vzxn{ r tzY r~z{zf [hp[z zt v R ~{Mop Yfxl ~Y X Wv oyx ~ Yzx ~x.
1947 n~ zYN v{yjxf hK[~zpn R~pxf ly[ Yy Sp cx[ll x. Wlp ~f 1956 lY Wv R~p Y [vf Xf x. 1951 vyf rMzKplN |z rf ryxY ~ { {~y. W~. hJ. RM. . tjhypxY vl lv WlY y Rv rnxpn, ~upxY rnxpn WY~l cY rY}xp n, Ur ~ur oyxp n Szz R~{j x. W WY~l cY rY}x Ur ~ur lplyf ~ rMzKplN ~upxY lplyf rl vf Ylz{z vlf R{~m{ U x. 1946 ~rlKtM 11 { WY~l cY rY}x rf { R{~mN ~f W RyKuY ~vYxY { Ylz{z vlf vyf Sv lplyf rl K u[x {x 1953 {~M x.
A 1953 R[~l 12 p vyf R { Mlzxp r~ W{Yf R[v oyx S~ hHz ~ppxY vl R[v oyxp Szz R~vl ~v[ x. WYz R[jhYy oyx y ~zt ~{yx Ylz{z vl Rly WlyK ~nYvY p{xp vzpv Xf R[v lply rpvf vz { ~zt ~{yxf r~{ Ylz{z vl {l Wx rpvf ~ {x Ylz{z vl l t ppvp~ ~{u{x ~{. 1953 vyf R[v oyxf rl Ylz{z vl 1956 Rrz 11 { p nY{ Yzx Wv oyx qp vyf ~{Mop Yfxl{z xj x.
Rzz~ }jx p vf Rzz~ vMnp YfKrl Yy rMzKplN Rpvx zt[ll x. Q rnxf z RzYx zt vfl, tno cxpx llp ܲrfYx r{Mlpx vfl Ul~Y x. 1954 ~zt ~ R[jhYy oyxp S{l { f Wv oyxf Q zYxY rl vf v cpf pv xcp Y n Ylz{z vl x. W~ rl { rv Q zY RjhYy{yx Qvl Xz{M [jzY vlx. Ylz{z vl vyf R[v{ ~x n| Yfxl Rp ~ { Sl {n[l R{~m rxYv Yx x.
Sp WY pt yf{z WYlYy ~v{Y r{lv. W~v 1954 Yw tz{lp[ ~KKzpx {l R~xp R[v ~KKzpx Yqvf vz ryN n X x. 1953 th r{l { ~KKzpx R~x - RrY cp n~{ p[ ~v Rl{| t{ r{~ Ylz{z vl W Rr p n~ ~{x z{ RpY, cp Rlyf n, [p xv Rr {[v t{ rz Y x. X[ R[v ~vx ~ { l{l {n[l ~v 1954 Rrz 10 { n{p W~tl cp Wpty Rrnlv[ zY [vp. ~x rmv zY ~ayx cp [htf WYv R~xp yf Q zY{x. vv [vp cpf rMj Y{yjx RyY}{ vpv Sv ~lYy vf Ylz{z vl {[tz [ll x. Ylz{z vl[ rzp Yzx l ~ { Slv {n[l n| Yfxll z~ ~zYpp 1955 n~KtM v~ 14 { Q zY{ WY~l cp[ ~[vx ~vYl{x zt [vx. zY rc{ ~p Q zYN n~ r[vl, z{ RpY cp Rly ~v lpY ~p yfY z~ ~zvf tp vl v ~ { |} ~v.
Ylz{z vl rtq R vvlply Rp{ X{ t npY p{pp ~zzYYyxY pnYxY z~ pv X l t Vc, R{Y, Wly [[j rtq{ Ylt Yypp Rh{. Rpp[ ~l p [vf rl rp~z [x, ~z[ll p {{ n Wlv ~x n{lf WY`{ rrl RyY} Y x. Rr~nx rp~z uY}p {p~z ~v[ ~r ~tql{Y r{l{p [yyYK zt [ll x. X 1948 ~xl - v[zp olp {p~z [p tyvxf l [vpY n [x x.
R[plY ~lYyxf z Wlv[ Yq{z r {~f Wp Bpv RxY p pyp r[p xp ~zv X[ rynn. W [x ~{Y ~ Rp pR t{ n r~no y~. 1956 Rrz v~ WY~l cY rY} ycx ~y{ v n Ylz{z vl[ R{Yl{xf Uyjx. 1957 lY [p xvf t ycx Yzp ~y{ 1956 v{yjxY r{lvf Yfxl Y x. Wxp X rycxf rl {{l rycx r[p R[vYp Szz R~ rclpl{nxf cpvlxf ~ pvf lyK WYz pxYxp Wly t{ rp{ pp x.
1956 X zn rycxp r~ Ylz{z vl rMjYzp{ n|rzp Yfxl{zp S{l{ |v ~{xp Yz [NN x. pvl X ~x ~vc ~{ Yfxl{zp ~fYl ty px. |}xpv hK[~zpn R~p Ru{nx rtq{ lyv ~x tN x. v ~{x [p |} RzvY t X ~{ vYl ufxp {p{p Wv ~[vx ~ur z~ |z ~{xY Sf Y x. Tf Rvly{ X zY rtz v ~[vx ~ur z~ n ~{x Y x.
1979 {~M ~x {~~mpx { Yq{z {zN{ cY RyY}Y n rgxY Ryvf ycxf rpx Y x. WYz yrxz YxYf R~lKpl Yy t vv nr v{ ~nYMxxY ~q rpv [y{xY z~ Wv RyY}Y n rgx p p{px Ylz{z RyY}Y n rgx p.
cp Ylz{z vl ~x l Yzx l ~Yf x lply{zp |z rvjxY x. zx xl [y{ pv Ur n zt [ll x. vvp, Y. . T. pK pxG pvxl, rynx |{nzxp Wz. Wz. . [y{ Urxl A Rly {x. pxG pvxl ~v[ cp Ylz{z vl Qvl cp Ylz{z z~ Rvpljx v n ~ x.
1980 XYltM rv{ X Y |}f v ~{x {p{p Qvl cp Ylz{z ~Kvpx cpyz{yxY z~ rl Yy. Wxp xfv p WYY [ U { XYltM v~ ໅~{ yf cxf Uy v{yY xj vv ~z pxYx ~nfv cܻxp ~v [ll x.
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