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Rvy {vnv

A Rpyory rc p[yx S Yyp Yzxx. p[yx SK ~z~vf Rp{ rc ux R{f t tno p{p Rp[Y ~mp rc uxp S{l Yy p{ p[yx Rp S vf xl{ t. A Rp{ ~v tx R~z r ry [jn YzY n p{ {h~fp xfl S{l vf pKYy t. S{l K ycx z pKv ztj Yz uyYy rcY{yx Rpyory ~r v{f [xx. Yz uy nxp Yz vv ~mpxp S{l pYyp z~ pp lvpf t{ ĻNx.
~r{yxfl W{z [j n p{j rz x.
Xx nx vfl Tx pp Yl Y. Up{p~ vf ĻN, Yr{ Rl vv p ty Yl{Y xx. tyYy Yr{f qfv ltz K [j n yr ~v tp {p~ `p xpp xz ~rܻ[ Yl{ R~ Yr{ ~{Y px xppf [xx. Wlpv [j nxp[x, Yr{[x ~Ktpox n R{y x. ~v yoxp ly{ [jn Yz ~v tx R~zp S{l Yyp z.
lv ycYx n{Yxfl {h R[x Yf ~zY K ~r{yx ||Y ryYv Fylp x. ||Y Fylp Urpp WYn~ p{~x ~lM c ly { x. ~M WHp Fylp X[ rxx. ~~ Fylp ~ Yh Fylp pK ~nyxp nnpY n ||Yf {{x. X{p ~v[ Yh Yz ~f ||Y {l {x Y[zz tnnrz {zNN x.
||Y r~z Rorpxp r~ |{nzxf Rll{ S܃~x rtq .A. [y{ Urx p [ll x. A |}f ~KvpxY n ~l{x. Sp r~ 1948 zY ~z ~{xf Rl { lv Al ~v[v zY Yzl{YY vN ~NDb pp{yxY z~ n Yfxl Yx. ~z ~{xf Rl vl ~v[v ||Yf vp{y YDDxf rlvY zt. Spr~ vlzl, vhYzrNl YDD{z ycY Yx. X R[vp [vp nrMlKplN ~Yy RoY}, ShK y{z K nrMlKplN ~Yy RoY}, [v ~{Mop nrMlKplN xc RoY}, Y}YMv nrMlKplN xc RoY}, [ ~ܲYYx ~Yy ~r, v ujh[yx xc Rxlp RoY}, {yx ~xYl vjhzx ~{Y YvpYy R lply{z Yfxl Yx.
{yx ~{Y YvpYy z~ Yfxl Yyp ~vx {yY {yx ~{Yxp lv n{z Yv Nz Yvf ~~ p t{ xp Ry[zxY xl Y. W WY ~{YxY ||Y p Yvyxf Yh { X[ K~x vlf xvY ~ Yyp K cy{ Ypp t xx ĻNx. K~x vl {x Yv rM~zx. ~p~p z~ Wx Rlf [l ||Y rM~zx [ y WY tl RfxY S pYf Wx YNx. Wx f ~{Yx RN[x rzpx Yy[p S{lf [xx. { Ryxf rxY zt. rz{Y ~{Yxf pzx ztj { Ryx R x. ||Y UrYv|z vpv Vc rzYxY x.
1954 {p f ||Y[ {x~ R{y ܃. Wl ycYxf ~ rn[zY lxf { R{opxY xv pY 1954 { {x x. X[ vpvzx {x f zz{x. X{p nnp[ Yz rl Urpp {xp n{~yYf r~x. Xf pycp Fylp xx pK ltp z. pycp[p r~ vp, Rpyo, zY|, |[ pK ny{p r~ npY[ vNrxp vf ||Y-f x{ {~p{pl {.
1958 {~M ~z-nv Yzz ~vx ||Y xrp ~r z~ n Yfxl Yx. v~ {xp ~ܲYY ~Y ~r{yxY z~ ~{x Y X[ {lx lx ~{Mjvx x[x z~ ~zYpp Rpyory ~ܲYYx v ~r z~ ~ Yzxx.
WYz X Rpyory ~yY}j vjhzx ~ur z~ n Yfxl Yx. Rpyory ~yY}j rpl rf{x 1940 {~M {{l Rpyory rc ux {hYfxl ~ {x Slv Rzvyj ~{u{x. WYz Q v tp {p~, y{pvz v ~x ~v[ rc ux l Rp[Y Yz, rzz, Ypyv n rf t. A{ rc uxp S{l Yy p{ p[yx Rlp rfvf xv Yy tj n ~ ycxY zoxY Wx vf Mul p{.
||Y Wv Rux[xf vj pp Sl UrYv|z ~ Vc r{lYf x. X rc p[yx t tno p{ ~x R[Y ~no~mp S{l Yy {pl ~mp{z rfvf rx{y [ll x. W y{pvz ~xl, Q v txl Rlp { t A {M[x v vM[xY x. rllzK ~f ܲYjvzx nY{ [vp Y Wv vM[x tzxY tjl ~{Y Tf Srl px. ||Y px{ Wx {~ nv A {p{f Rly vM[xY S Yx. W~ vf Xf ~ {j tzlYyx. Rpyory Q v txf W {G t v {qr ~ v~Yh Rl r~no {qr Sp S{l Yy p{ p[yxf [p [xx. S[~ rzp Yzx ~f {qr r{l{[p R Wv [hp[zz ~pm |v |z{ z~ pK Yy n~ [jpY {pnpYy{pf z[K [l r r~~Yyjx Yx. Rfv~mpx {f vM[xY S Yx.
{yY X rc ux t ò~x rzzx Yh S{l vf ~y~jx. K R{~mN Tf Wy{ ~ }r{y Yw rj R[v{ ~ W~.hJ.RM.. tjhypxY vl{ v x. {v Yp ||Yf yYmp RvlvY zt.
.A., }rz Rl RpyorM rzzx S{l Yypp Wr xz SzzvY Yyp{. rzzx S{l vp R[Y R{zY {pp r{p. A ~ rzzx S{l v {v ply Yypp xz vv x[ Yyp{. f Xt vvf Wp }r{ypf A t{ l{y Y xlx. x Rvlv pp R[vlvx.
||Y Tf rly np vx p[y ~z~K Yf~Y x W~ Y p t{ ĻNx. Wf Tf lp rly p R[v vv yG R[v xf np x[x Sf Yypp. x[x Sf pYl {v vy Yyp{ xx x ~{yx ltNx. Sp r~ vlY Yzrp{f {fj ||Y ~p yjxY [llx. A Rp{ R[v x[x plY Wpv rzzx Yh S{l v RyKu Yx.
vz Rvlvp p ~~Yf rvj r~ Yp p{ll ||Yf yYmp RvlvY rڻxx. Rvlv R[vlv[.
.A., f Un {pp ry rzzx S{l Yypp Bp. }rz p{l Rpyory WpYf rzzx Wlp pܻtpp .A. {[tz[pp Bp. vz x[x R{z[x { rv }rz p{l Rpyory Wp f rzzx ~zYjY{l W px. }r{y r~ pv R[vlv v ~ R n ~z Y.
K xY 뻃Yp. 냣 U[ tnoxY. vf 냣{ vy Yypp r{p. A lll{x l K yG tno p[vY ~ {jl vYn Yypp. vv xppK. K ~nx RvlY Yyz p{p[yxp rzzxf q ShvY ly [p zop[ ~x[xl Ry[p p{l rzzx S Yypp. xp R[vlv n R` Jy [llx.
R[v tjhypxY vz Rvlv Rll }r{y X R~z ~x X{pf R~ppf x. X n{p Rvlv Rll }r{y rfl{ [xf r~x.
||Y Rpyoryx v ~r z~ 1959 ~f 1962 nY{ {~y lpY ~{x Yx. v Rpyoryx ~r z~ {~y lyY ~{x Yy Rl. [l { ~x{~ WYvy l Rpyory ~ ~r{yp Rly |}flvxp z~ ~r{y ܻnpY vf pK Y Y. A ~p[ ~t~opx [p v n{pv Yr { WD.RM. vp, Y}YMv ~{Mopx ڻrllf [p [x vpn ~z{ ~ R[Y, ~~YY rpynx vpfv p[ ||Y Fylp xp ܻnpx. ||Y Fylp Rl{ ܻnp [pv f ry zx Rl.
1962 {~M p{l Ywf r ||Y yc ~{ Y~K zYK Rl o lply ~Y yNx. 1965 [{pz ~{x RoY} cpyz oyxl Spr~ ~{n| Yfxl Rvl|x RܻMY zYK oyxl yNx. r~{ r{p Rvl|x RܻMY zYK z~l, 1969 {h tzp r{p zYK z~l 1970 ~~YY Rvl|x zYK oyxl yNx. 1975 yc ~{xp |v [x RxMNn ~~mN ~ur oyx Y YzY t{Nx.
|v xvp r~ vp{y ~x l{lp[ tz{l Szzv r x{hp zK oyx ~q ly[ Y ||Y Sp cx[p 1975 ~f 1985 {~y {p lY Wv oyx Yfxl Yx. 1965 Q zY rrzp ~{xf Rl {j R{~mN v[ rv U~~ zox {x ||Y Fylp x. X 1970 ~~YY Rvl|x ~y zYK{ ~x Q zY yc zbpxl, cY Yջx ~x {Gf R t Y ly Mvjx Yx. Wv R[ nYv Rn vyf Rjh Yv {{~m{f Rll{ Rl.
x{hp zK z~ Yfxl Y Yzx n ||Y Rp |z ~{xY n v[{fl, ryyfl ~ x. vp{y rc ux zYj Yy rY|xf rl v, n|x, n|x ~x cYxpf ~{y RvY Rq n v[{f Rl vf xv v, ryM |l ~nM|p R[ Srl Y Rxf |l RvY xv v { R[Y pxY R Yx. X x{hp zK z~ Yfxl Yyp f X[ ~Yy z~ ~ѻx {vz rl pycp Fylp x. rx[p r~ X x{hp zK z~ 1985 ~f 2005 lY ~ {~yY Yfxl Yx.
1977 {~M ||Y n|rzpxf xv x. A [v WY~l cY rY}x ~oxY z~. Wv {~Mv rMzKpl{f rl { X Rorp U~~ Rorp Rv z~ 1980 {p lY Yfxl Yx. 1980 ~f 1988 lY RYyj Rv z~ rl { X 1988 YGv ~y[ny l ~ { ]lpx l{p RYyj Rv oyxp Szz R~ x. Sp r~ X ~xG y~xN Q zY lpr z~ YzY Yfxl Yx.
ny{p ~Ktpoxp Sl r{lY Rp[vpx Yyp X{p [yY vf {~j ||Y ~~ ~z zop[ ny{p ~Zru[ l [l Yyp f lv ny{p rxp r~z xNNx. [K [H ny{p ~v[ [h [ Yp v[ nr~ {ypf U~~ Yyp ~yz lxY [l vf Sh ppx. ~ph~y{z{z rfj f ~~ ny{pf~v lv ny{pfl rz~x z{ nk{K Yy{Nx. ~zzy Yh{zp [nyf Bp Rh{x [p Avf ny{p xNNx. Bpv {hY qf {h pyY np ||Y YYz YpYyx. l ~`{[l YpxY pt X { r, { tj, { xx. Ryry~~v X[ v lxv t nx. ny{pfl Yf{zf ~zz WYl vf Urn~ pp Wv WYl{p vnz{zp rl z [vf x pp x. ||Y ~l{ |z rl [th{Y n x. r~ YzY rl xvf ry~~K vf p{p t{ xp A{ Y[zz r~lYzxf rl[ Yx.
X S܃~ex. zYN o rn|{z ~ayx vfl A{ ~Ktpo S܃~ Yl ny{pf xvl X[ ~l. Wv lyly r~ YzY Bpv vlY R~ f x Yhrhp vf ny{pf x xlx. RvlY v, plv K{f Yyj px. {yY zY rl pycp ~v[ rppy xp [vpY nw rn|x r~ Yyp xp ||Y nwzz [p xK xK n rl[p R~Nx. Tf ~ rly vf Rr~l pycpf trp! tz rzxp rp~zf. [ S܃~x R[p {yp xp Rr~ rppy Avf xnv n Rlyv[ rl t~~Nx. Rlyv[ nv [x pycp nw rp~zf [~ xf[x{ p[p Rr~ rppy{f Wp f R { t.
{zrz Yl vf RYv ||Y Yl Yypp {hYf R nxY rv. Yl Yypp n rzY R nx. rfp [l YMx v Yyp ly xY, n{zY [p p~lp rynnY Xf x. r ~p ~v[ Xf p[l ~tql r{l. Rpyoryx ~{x Yyp Yzx X[ ~ry xyrx Rv n {p~ x. cY Rv X[ Rv x. X[ Ry~ v {j ~KrMj Mv| Ryx. UKtzYh{l YN pl.
||Y Yx. X zx S[~ Y n~ [jp. A{ ~ fY, ~ lpY r px. A pr Y r {x WYv {y. An WY rfrl. WY Urp pxYf ny{p WYl X[ S[~ Y WYl Yy rlY r Yy rxf Urp p l[[ z~ ppx. Rr RrrDȔ x ~zp pK Y Urp p l[[ Rlf [l ||Y ~lp Y ~Nx.
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