@

 
   
HOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 


Rvy ~vy
p[py ~zYf rx rp~q nw[~RM Q ~KoYy p

Rvy {vnv

Y[ rxf r[ x Yf Ytz qp kf Rl rly j [~ R~~p Ytxxp W t. {[{z~p ryK Yx. ~p [vp p{l t. [~ t ~ y rwyp Yqp vlv |az x. yry rk rx ly { Rlp rpp prpp x rpp YzN S~N{p S~N{f Rnp {p v[xpf p yry n~p.
rj R rxY{l pYh ry~~vf Rx ltp uY}p {p~ {px ly x. xv R{ Yz{ ry Rp yܲ Ry [z Wp f x ~x p{lp { Yp {Y}x vl rzf [h{p Up{p~ K l{pp qYf ~ pyYYf p{p t{ {p ~{r{p n.
vxp {~y R~ rYf rvj SllN ܲYjvz ~ܲYYx YGxyK rllN v{z [` R~th { ~yzf xp v { tj ~lrK n~xp{l ~ YfkY R~ppf p ajh {p v[xp[p [{~ [l v ]p {pplyxY v. K Yz{ vn tycjp {p~[ zzf olp {p~ np Yf Y{p~~ yclv Yy{ v[z v alx x. K alx R~z t {p~r {Y}xY {p Rlrly [{~[l Yp [~ vp ntzY rzY Rf{ Up{p~ W {~x RywN tz{l R}gpx. A pfwp{ [x alx r~~Yyjx K R}gpx RYy [l uY}p {p~ pK nw[~RM Q ~KoYy vrjp x.
nw[~Ry yj vly ~ܲYYx {zzth rll{tn Y{zz xK[K l[zz p[yxf pM r tl tzlp, xp ryj z~~p [Kvpx. K [K {~xp[ vl Rnyxfl, [y{xfl rl { Rw ~ x{Y {l {. v{zz ylpy rft[ p vpx~ nw[~RM XzYYN rft[ ppDa K Rw ~ x{x. {yp r~npYv Urp r~ K x{f rlY Urpp x. A WYn~ Rf~x Rp nY n~KtM v~x pv{ x. r{z x {x { Xf r~{ l{l r ny{Y r{zf WY x. vzv r ny{ Urp Nz vrx X[ Rp[lx [p llY R~. Sp x{j r{zf Urp K rv r ny{ YpY ~~p[l yf, cx, R[v tt{p Rvyx ~{xY Yyp t{x.
A ll qf ~ lt[l vrx ny{f R{y lY ryj r~ X W{Yf pY[vN ~rlt yr{ {h~ l[zz Q rdppn vxpf uy pp RYy xvfx. WYz r~z Rorpxf {h ~vcx r[ll rp~z Rorpxx. ny{ n ry ~Krx Rp{ rp~z Rorpx ztN x. ny{f {YzY W~ ~vf p x. Yh Yzx llf x{j r nvrx X{ vj vf ~pK {. A Rp{ lzzz pXfpp zY ycv yr{ {h~ np{y ~ oKvylp vxp xflf uy Y ny{f ~vjy tj nK Rx r[j Yyv ~ x.
WYn~ p{~x lM R[~l Rf{ ry r~~{Y r pxY x. np{y ~ oKvylp vxp xfl ~vjy tj U[l Yh ny{f p {x~ R{y nx. W~ r p xj ~t pYlp np{y ryv lyv ycv y~mpx np{y ~ oKvylp vxp[ RaMxl{xp ny{ r Yyp z. Yh ~vjy xpf ~KoYy xx pK np z.
p Yh ~KoYy ~vjy xp Y xll, YvY Yl oKvylp pxp[ r~r~p {һ[pv x. WYn~ p{~x p{x vx v~x oKvylp vx ~x Yh ~KoYy pv n Yf{ yj[v ~vpyvx {~ ~vf [x. W oKvylp vx {yfl S[v ~q Rl[v Q ~zYZpo vpxY vxpf ~KoYy ~vjyxp {p~{ uy p. Wv {~ Yzx R{~p {lv ~KoYy xp[ RaMx oKvylp vx Rr{l {. Rl[v Q ~zYZpo xp hpN |zKtyvx Rr xp {. W~ oKvylp vxp[ Rr{lvl ~v[ ~KoYy |zKtyvx l {~~mpx t{f rl Yf[p {h ~. Up{p~ W {~y [jp{Y oMv-px |Jn |~l r[j Yyp Yz [{.
~{x~ ryj nw[~RM ~KoYy xp p oMv-px |Jn |~l ~ }xp vp pvY R {Ճ pv. WYn~ p{~x nlp r~p ry r~~{Y px hpN |zKtyv~pp UnYYCr ~v vzYx Rl[v Q ~zYZpo v pxY vy{p[ Uroxp Ur~Kr{ zt.
v~ Yzx [{p Rlyly WYn~ p{~x ~ nY p[py rl tno Yfxl vxvf ~~ uY}p {p~ pvY zt np z~ ܲYjvzx tno ~[vx ~ vhYzrN tno ~[vx ~p Rl[v Q ~zYZpo vxp[p Szz ~ѻxx. K Szzv ~zY t Up{p~ A ~q {hv ~~~ lvp ~{j oMvpl~{ Yfxl Yyp nw[~RM Q ~KoYy xp t{ r~Y Yf[p Up{p~{ p[py rl tz W{. WYz ܲYjvzxf vhYzr{f xvf Kx ~{xY tj pl. W~ 1922 ~KoYy xp ܲYjvzx tz rfl {x zY{ {G xp Yh y{z p{. A vzpv [zzf {hv Yy Wlp ~f [ {yxp rfl {p {q y{z pN{zp ܲYjvzxf {|x.
ܲYjvzxf [x Up{p~ ܲYjvzx cx~vpyvx alx Rl yy[ ~Y n vhYzrN v[zyvx y vpyx, ~yz ~y Ur lrz YMxzx, vpN rv [x, vhYzrN Rnv ~z r~z, z{z {~xp[ rxcpx ~q ~~p uxY, ~yz rz~x, [plz rn|x vov nzx, ~yz {z[v v nzx R Rl{| [hp[z ~Y SYy{ A{ vcpl{f ~{xY ~rxp Rxlp t{f rl Y. f Rvly{ vpN zy Ry[|zN [zp y[pf rx pY r~ nK n~v, Yplz Yzzy ~ ~yz [ cprn{zf ~z RxK rzY zoxY rl Yyv, ~ vyj rY}YxY rl Yyv, {-Urrpp-vyj zxr Yyp ~z zoxY rl Yyv, ~yz n{ll ~z [K~u nYY rfv, v[z {{ r~~Yyjx Yy{ lyj [ {ry R v, {vM[ nrMlKpl{p ~ R Yplz ~yz Rl ry R{~yrl pv{ vcp rxcpxf xv R |z ~{{Y n p[py rl ~ Y. zYN rv {yf y[ny oMv n|p v RyKu Yyp znn Up{p~ ~. A 1923 vx v~x {~Y rx llp vhYzrN tpop[yx rmv oMv n|px r{l{.
K RYyxf p[py rl ~{Mop Yfxl{z xp ~ ~KoYy xp ry rlrl [N}jx Yyp RlM tycjp {p~[ zzfolp {p~ np Yf Y{p~~ yclv Y v[z v al ycx ܲYjvz rn|x YGxyK rllN v{z [` R~th ~yz ~rx rf R t{ ol{| pK S܃~ [pmx lp p[ppf zt. Sp r~ Up{p~f R {x W xvf vkzx p R|{.
l{l xY rrYfl K Yfxll x X{pl ~v[ ~KoYy x ܲYjvzx ~f xpY cpx ~p rn xp tllz{zp YGxyvf rx. W{Yf vlM ~ WYv ~zx {x {rYxY { hpN Rp.A. vM~x~ Rrr vnzz vlx. Wp X[ {q~z p{lp [l ~KoYy Rl r~ p ÃrxYf R{| Ry { n [p Yyllxp r~ Unv rfl {. ~yz v[z v ~x rf ܻtp ~mpxf [p ~lrK ܃Y rvj n vp WY n~p ~lrK Y rvj n, l{l n~p ~lrK ~~Y rvj n x. {[{z~p[p ~ Y vp[p n, y rwy }]y ~Mrxp[p n { [p ]p {pplyxY K rn~ rf t.
[{xp [vp v ~ ~ t Rry{z [ ~lrK n~xp ~ YfkY R~ppf p v {pxY vp [vp Y Wv [vp RlK f xYy {p~lp }]y ~Mrxp n nYpf ztj vl phxf ~ RplyY px. W~ rj Up{p~ ~~ r~ pftp{ [x v[z v ~x ~x [l.
W yܲ ~KoYy Rl r~f t WYv p{lp {x ~ v{ R~z R v {p~r {Y}xY {p Yp [~ ~{j x. ~v{ R~z p nYY [{ Rr~ rjp f ~KoYy xp[ ~l l rtz R}gpxY Sr t. A pftp{ R al ycx[ Yf Yz Ry{ r~~Yyjx Yy {pnpvpxf ~~ ~mpxY t{f rlYyx xppx. v{ ]p {pplyxY vn ~ rfY p S~N{Y WYz W{ppY ~pxY x.
Rr~ r r~ Wp yܲx vlM l{l {q vl[ {q~z [{ r~ xl ܲYjvzxf rx. Rr~ r [~ ~KoYy xp ~yz alycx r~~Yyjx vf ycx R{~yx zt [vf Yfxl Y. A Rp{ 1922 XYltM nlp{ p ycx tzrlxp Tf R{~yx zt [l. pvl zYv [f{ A ~q {x{p zY} [jpY vnz ~x [v x. A rtq ~lp ~ Up{p~f W{Y ~ tno ru{yxY { ycx u} r{MlY oyxY y ..y~ vnzlv ~ x. nnp Rly YzxY ~fv {hj lnvY n x. al r~~Yyj Yfxl{zf zY} [jpY tyrp vf Wlv WY` x. Al ~v[v alx Yfxl Ry. |l{M} [jp{Y v ]p {pplyx {~[p ~ alx vl { t Yzx Yrr{ YfYz y r~ Yyp z. rvYf ~yz {pnpN xp tvlp ~q |v |z{Y, lrrN ~f ~lrK lpYf R~pp [p xl vM[x { Yz{ Yrr{ nYY,n l{YzY ~]{~xY n S Y.
xfv v[z v alycx[ r~~Yyj Yfxl v vf [l {x r~ {~y. WYn~ p{~x ܻ ~rlKtM v~ Rf{ [ r ~n~Yf RY tno cpYxY vox v[z v alxf Yl rzqK Ul~{x r{l{p z.
v ~yzf rڻx [p n{p xl{x. vf {ly rnY Szz[p vf v[ Y x rvf ~{Y W K Yz p~ѻxx. Rp [z rM{l vp { Rz Rlp n, YfxK Y tyl Yqp t {[{z~p n rv W v lxf v ~ѻx. ~ YfkY R~ pK A v[v Yfk x. Wl RlK p{z yܲx {y n~p rl n|p k R~. W Rpplxf [x v ]p Yz{ vn l { v ~z cܻxl ~Ktno |~pxl R RZjh ~Ktpox vz ~f R[fl R[ ~f vzfl vp Y.
Wlp rfp ~KoYy x Wv YzN Yp [~Y ntzY ~[l {~~mpxY z[K [l. Up{p~ Wv yjx [pp f R~p lY vpxY ~ YfkY{l, rpp lY vpxY [xY, yY{l zt[l RyY, Y{yjxY, NyjY ~{jY tj pl. ~ѻx v {pxl, {p v[xpl rv. {px {p~lp Up{p~f ly {x nYz{ YzN {~x Y K Yzx x.
v[z v ~x r~~Yyj Yfxl RyKu Y R{x Up{p~ {p {y lv Urp [v {l {ջx Ãr {l{Y ~j vzx Uj l{. pvl A ~ to{Yf vkzx p { tzN[xY ~ p[ R ~KoYy rj R}gp Yy[l r pftp{ [~ t v[z v ~x v {pplyxY vn nYz{ x ~x[p {pnpvpxf ~~ lll{xf [p R.
Sp r~ ~yz R{f ~{Mopx vf Rl[~ ~KoYy x yx R{f tno r{z nxY r Yy{. Al ~v[v l{l |z YMx uyxYf Rl[~ Up{p~[ W{Y ~ YMvpl n Yfxl rtq Rvl ~.~z vN vl[ xYl{x n zt[p 1977 ~yz rc p[yx  Y. Wlp ~f ~yz ~{Mjvx x[x Ryw.
v ~ vN nYz { v W vp Y Rn Xt[ pl{zf rlY}xp x x. K S{p rc p[yx W |}f rszxÔ x x ~KoYy x ~yz rcx ~mpx Rp[l Unrxl ~yY}l u{xl, Tf Ul r rn ~lYy r{lvl, Up{p~[ Rrlxp xl RYl y~mp{z Unrx Y{yjxl |} ~{p {p~z[ Rp[l ~t ~nxl, ~yz {~xp[ ~{pl{xl ~KrMj vf {p r ~yz rc p[y ~{Mop uyx pp uyYy vjhzxY n rf{.
nw[~RM Q ~KoYy pxp[ K RZjh, |}f ~{{ ~zY ~yz v[z ycv yx, vhYzrN v[zyvx, ܲYjvzx cx~vpyvx, vlM Uly[ yx xp yxp Rr oyx {l rzpY oyx ycx zxr Y zxz{zp [l Yf r{y np z. W~v ~{Yxf zY |~pxf Yyp zn v` ~{xf [y vY z~ 1962 R[~l 02 Up{p~{ v[z oMv M Q xp [y{ Urx ~l p[py lvpYh nrl rop ~]pxY oyxf rl v nw[~RM ~KoYy vrjp[ |~Y lx ~|}v R{~m{.
W~v 1939 {M}x Rywj zY v ~[vx zYN ~xv xn Yq{y{z oMv n|p vf ycx xvx r zYjhYyx ~p ~KoYy px Tf WYv ~~~ z~ pK Yy rl Yyp z.
~KoYy vxp ~{j |z r |} r~Y {hj. A Rlp ppx ~vpl, ~yz ~yjl, Yfrz Rvyl, hKrz {yl, ppx ~[jl Ãr pv. ~KoYy vxp {YxY z~ n rn|x ry r~nxf rl{ ~x. Up{p~ y[pf tl Yyp {YxY t{f rl {x WYly Rry YvxYf x. ܲYjvzx cx~vpyvx {h{~p Yzx nw[~RM pxpf pY ~MrxY n}f Yyp z. vypY xx ~zYp A ~Mr } pxY rYy Yv v[p ~{ Yyp z. pvl A } |yx l{yfl tzr{lv ~ xp[ v |yxv {Mjx xyrx cYxY[ vp ~ rxf y. Sp r~ YlyK |z r~Y vnf [x n qf Yr rpp yrxp rxp Up{p~ S~vl rpppf x. Wx n Up{p~ WYly RYyxYf zl u[xY ~ ~z. vv ~Mr }f rYy vf X}o ~K ~Mr } p~p Vnxp xvf lyK tzN[xY R Y ~xxY [j R {vx X}oxY ~x [vf Up{p~f jx xN. A X}ox rD Yy Up{p~ px-r { xYy }]y ~Mrxp n}f Y ~z-h-v~zK ~x [jpY ~ l ~lxY p[p Jy p {YxY t{f rl {.
lv l Yzx l r pvYf lt [xYf{l Y p lyK |~Y, ~vcxx v{yY Y nw[~RM ~z ~{q { Q ~KoYy vrj WYn~ p{~x R~ lM R[~l v~ nlp{ ~x x[ v{y R{~p Yyp {~y Rp nYY Rx { Rr{l {.
~Y~ Y
vp Y[Krx