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A l~l{nx K l~l{nx

~Y Yzrx v tz{l {p Spx{ ~x ~v~l S܃~x lv vj r R|x uxpY l~l òxvxf vj pp f p lyYf ryl{ x. Sl ~oplvY ~z~K ~[l{ Wzz { l~l ryx lYf[p SpxN {q R[ p[yx {p vKtx ry{yx R|x {n[l ~mp ÃrxYv p nYYf R~pp YzxY ry l~lxp[ Rj~Y xfl r{.
vv ryx {[v hYp vcp ~opx ~p uy[p zt ܻJ. vKtx p[yx ~r~no fF fzxf, Xtyx fzxf, Yv yzf l{l vMv~mp ÃrxYf Rl { l~l{ R~Yxp WY~x ~r~ npYf RY r~Y vy nv l{l |z r~Y l{zYy{p t{f rl Y. vv l~l ryx vMnpx vf r vKtx l~l vMnp tzRڻx rox { vpl ~MYM Rl RyY}Y zop 18 npY ]lpx Y.
lF Xtyx fz{z p{lp[p ~ RvYp{p lp cYxp ~x ~x ]lpx Y X{ SYl t yܲx ryv vp v t~rp px ~v~l Spx{ uܻxp v~rl Y.
vcp l~l{p[ vv ryx n{ {px 2001 ~rlKtyx RvY{f Wzz Yyj 9-11 ryxf rvjY t{ t tzvf rp. {pl yfY tz rn|xY RYvjx Yy lv Rj~Y xfl tz[l ryxY Wzz v W R {p~x. l~l{nx pv RYy x rtq{ Spx{ vlY {plyv Rp[vpx Y n r{lY t{ Rvl{p p{vp x. Q zYxp {|xp W Rp{ Rr R rvjf uY q Rllv. R~{ n|Yx Y l~l{pf y~[l{ r{ Spx{ 1987 {hvyD vxv Rh Yy{ Q zYN l~l{nx vzprf vf t rv R{~m{ Rrf R Y t{ n Rr nv. W uxpYv rszx Spx{ Rlpn ruYyp ~p Spx R[v yN [p vl{ v rM ~ ~ Yh{ ]lpx Y vl x. Y l~l{nx ~Ktpoxp SpxN ~ Ryppf rfp [ll Wlp rfp x.
pvl {p {y Wxp r~{ {{n Q zYN Y l~l{nx {pl r~tK{zf vj rp R{~m{z Spx{ lv R~z{~x[ {~ Yyny lyp vf UrYy vf {h ~lN ~x Rjh tzx Y [v [p ` v{yj cx[jx [p x.
WrvjY pN pf xl{ ܻtp vyG Y l~l{nx vzprf nvp v ~fp Sl yjlvY R{~m{z r{ lzph{p Spx vov ycxf Wzz{p tzrv ~vpx Yy [ppf X{p Rr vN pxYl n [f v {[ Rrf RvlY pl.
t f Rzzr [ny tyrl [f{Y v [ny Rllp npp Wx Rpp[ r|pxY xf x. Wx ~ fYl lvpf R [f{Y p{p t{ X{ Yzrp Yy. pvl lvp{ YyY{ Rly R t{ X{p lyK [pp R [f{ lvp[ {p lv U { f x. WlY v|Y zz{p Rpp[ r|p n~ t zvYyxpf lvp[ lyv {fpp np { R~yj { YzY rv.
l~l{nx ~Ktpoxp vl{Y Yz Spx{ Rp[vpx Y n r{lf X{p p{l p{ݻK l lx xlv x. K {p f Yzrx v|Y u{x rtq Spxp ryrxf {pl xY ~{ ܻJ. lvp[ yf l rvjY p{ Yzrx l~l{nx yzppf ~vY òxvxY {pYv rtq{ l~l{nx [y t{f rl{ ~p Yzrx yf{z YlyK pK k[ Rln? pvl zY Rxx[ R{opx rMj Yrv A Yy pv { Yz Wx l~l vMnpxf {h l~l {Mopx Yy tzrp t{ SYl t yܲx{l Spx{f lyK [x x Rr pnv.
Q zYN l~l{nx vMnpxf Spx{p ~zx xl ~x[xY ztp t{ Rr RvlY Y xl pl. Rr rllp tzp Yz Rrf R{|{ Rll ~zx xl ~x[xY p{ A ~q {p rMj ~x[x. Yrv. Rl v. W{p ~x[xp ly{ Yzrx l~l{nx vzprf vY [p lppf{l p x.
Y~ {l Spx{ l~l{nx ll y~x thYf ryv uY pn SYl t yܲx x. Tf l {x l~l{nx xp RYy x ~ lyv Spx{ WlY v nrlzp v R{to Yy[p p~ ~ x. pW~ pK lvpf WlyK {n[l p{pp xx ~l r|pxYf Rl v Rpp[ ~ yppf xvY z~ Spx{ f ~ x.
SYl ~ { l~l ryxp SpxN Mvl ryrxf RyY}Y xpljxf Yrvj xY ~ {{l K vl Wx SpxN R~ RvY t{f rl{ ܻtp t{ Rvl{p p{vp x. pvl l{vl l~l{nx [ rz Rp{ rtq{ Spx{f Q zY{f lyK RlvY Rll pl. l~l{nx R~p rrr nvp{ lyK ~x Ruvlx rv rvjY vp}x Roy rf{p{ lyK z~ r~ p{p t{ K vl {p f Spx{ lyK [p R t{f pK ~ ~YxY Rll n pl.
n|Y nYvyYf RY YzxY ry Q zY{ l Ry ry t l~l{nx vzprf nvppf vyf v{p ~ Rjh{ Rrvj YrvY Yyx. p Sxf Spx{f n l~l{nx Wzzx Wv Yrv Yyppf ~{p t{ Yy{v rz x. Spx{, Q zY{ rvjY p{ ~Y Yzrx RpYl ~x yf{zf n l~l{nxp vYx zx YY A ~q Rpp ~x[xp xl{ Yr {{l rvj. l{yfl lv lvp[ rn[zY px rl X~~ xppf [xl W {~x l~l{xf ~ Rp Y{yYf{l pN. vKtx ryx [y Yf [p rv Spx{f Wx {f [l {x pK Wx Ry {z{Y rxp MZ{Y {p R t{ pK ~Y x. p vl{f prv{ Yzrx l~l{nx vzprf K r YvNnxY, Urv Rpp ~x[xY WûpY[p r{px pK A Rux[x cx [v WlyK R~y p{p Rl.