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Rvy ~vy
x[xf R{| ~ RaMx A. . Rxylp

Rvy {vnv

rp~z pxY vy{p ~v[ ~lf ~ǻx xp Spxp ~~lyYyx rջr t[p R{l Yvf {[ rp~z r [nyf [h{j tpf {ly y{Y Szz[p x. {ly y{ [p RN ppz[ RKvx. ppz[ RKv A {p f ny ~KrlY tzryll{p Uppx. R n~ vqY {z tz~ ~~lyYyx pz ~~lyxY xppf Yvll r Y x. Wl { [lf [~ yrxz nY YxY [p tzl YxY {f ppz[ lll Wx ~~lyYyx[ Rl ltNx. ~~lyx v Ryw.
K Rll. l{ n{~ lpY K vڻx r ny{Y  Yyp{. tx ny{ zh. tyf ty xnK Yyz lvx {l Yy[pp {pp. A ny{ Urpp v zYfv ~{x Yyppx. nvNrx Wx[p ~r pp tz Spp Wr.
~~lyx [p R~ R~z{~xp, p WY WY lz Yl xp RlM xfv [ [x p lp. WYn~ p{~x ~ WY p{KtM r~{ t~rp t~ xp y[ Wxp yp{p rxf R~ yn ppz[ RKv { Yyny Nnp{Y p{v rlY  Yx. ~{~ xx p ~ lf rp~z r [ny p~ zxp vllxfl, ppz[ RKvfl, Urp Y rxf rx Rxylp xx pK ltNx. rx[ {~[vl ~v[ ny{[ ~KrMj pv R[v[ Rxylp x.
Uj{fj rzz[h rp~z r [ny r R[v lKv{[ pY p~ zxp vllx y~zp [cy RyD x{f Urp lp{ ny{ Rxylp x. Rxylpf R~zp ~l zzp azzl pp {vz RYYz nnpY n {. R~z{~p X{p nnp pp xp ~ylz pvxp Rvl ~ X{p[ RKvfl, ppz[ RKv xp pv rftp x.
Rxylp Srnppfl rv ~~lyYyx x r Rxylp y[ ny{Y x. Xf t zYv y[x ~K Rvy{x. X[ y[x [j Rlf yp ly RKvl, llll Y npp ~v {nY `fv Rxylp [p xvx. A ~v {n{yxY[v Urn~ {j ny{ Rz{lyp rN|K Yy [pp z~ x. W~ n{~Y nYY p{ {~y lY xplyv RKv Rxylp[ R` Rz{ly [NN{l pl.
Rxylp[p r~ l{l ny{ ܻnpY r{zf WYl {. Sp nnpY [p ny{p { Rly WY YpY r ny{Y x. Rxylp xplK Rppf { [~v rzz[h rp~zf xpp Wpp rfp [ll x.
YzY [l{lv n{z Yvf{l [p{ [vf tlyK ny{ rp~zf yx. pY Rxylp[ pK R[jxY Rlx x rp~z ~vpc pxY vy{ Rxylp[ Ypnyx [p{[p Xf l{l pvY ~ p. Rl pv xhMx. Wlp ~f ny{ R[v[ xhM Rxylp pl A. . Rxylp pK x. pvl [K [H Rx X RvlN r vllx p.
{x~ R{y lp Rxylpf ~vpc pxY vy{p ~p RYy x{ Rly vy{p n vlxf rl Yyp [m |zY U[p rl rl [p Rzvp S[p [ppf x. Rxylp vzpv [x Uj{fj ~z tno | r~zf x. r~z xv rfp [ll n Rxylp[ ~x {h ycY t tj rp~z ~v[ x. lyv rp~z Yzx [{ lv [ny ~p f r vy{p[ Yvyxl, lv[ Yvyxl Rly pzY Rn [rG rxp x fzpxY ~[ll x. Rxylp rp~zf YlyK ~r{ ~ѻx n xl rp~z rl rYK{z n{lx z~ yYh R~p x{x n Rxylpx.
YzxY v~ [{p f Rxylp[ lll {ry Yfxl ~q ~x r{z n ~v[ vnnYpnf [x x. vnnYpn ~{u{ ~pnMxxp {| { W nM|x vz rly {llY ~N x. Rl ~Yvjxl ~v[v Rxylpf n Rl r~zYf xvf ~x. A vnnYpn ~z tno | r~zf x. W r~{ rpxf Rll ~MmY z~ U[l Rxylp W Y}g u[x ~vl{ {y S[pvf [zz Uj{fp tp~f zf Rll {j x. [{p r~zY { tp~f{f Rll vf Rxylp [x l{v x. W S[~ pv { xj Yy[l W tznY} {ryxf n r~x x. Wx r~ YzY [K r {h{zf ~{p ~Ktpo vf ry rj{Y x.
tp~fN YzY U[l Rxylp WYz v vl nYj rlv |}g tno Rorp rgx z~ pK ny t [zz vpn nzxf Rll {j x. W r~z rzpG ~`yN ~~YyY z~ rl { lv ~z, S[~ {n YjhxK r~z òYG YjhxK pl{v t ~vYxY x. WYz Rxylp r~z xp v ~ pYv X Wp v[ Y[p ~p {x~Y RKv YpY X[p ~l 25 Y Szz [vf ry{ ~x x. A ~l ~r Rx Szz [pp ~ܻx z Y [vf x. R n K ~l 25 R{Mxpv NN x.
YzY [l pY Wv {x~Y v{[ {~f [x R fN Yh rzrlY zj Rwy {l{p Rx. Rx Rwyj zj vnzz Yj Yzzxf zf [pp Rxy {f[l lv Y YMYxp[ |vx rf~ly vnzzz ~y Yv {Yvf Y YMYxp[ ~xY rfx. R~yj Y YMYxp {zzf Yq{ Yl r{l{ RyKu Y Wv ~x cx [ll x.
1952 {~M Rxylp |{nz rN|xf r ~x n ~x R { ~ YYYvY ~ Sp ~vl vf p x. r{z R[`YK n K {p f vl Rxp tp~fN zr v W [y{yxY z~ {h Ryvf v[Y ~ [ll x.
1956 cp{ 01 vy[v [y nz rj{f Rll { W ~vc ~{ ~[vxY RyKu vf ry[ x. W R{~p rY}jxf r ~һvp 1958 pzp nzx rl vY zt Rxylpf rlv uy [vf rv [l { v~ Ãrx [v ~{Mop Yfxl rtq R{toxY zt [vf Spx{f xvf R{~m{ U x. Wv [vp [~ Wp RlM v l { RxylpK pK vlY[ l[xY z~ A vlf Rxl vyp nz[xf [ny ~y {~ux Yy[ppf R{~m{ Ux.
Wlp ~f nz[xf [ny r { R Yzp zt pzpN rlv ty[p W [y{yxY z~ Yfxl v RywN x. A {p fl |vp Yfxl rtq{, rc ~{Mopx [p Upp{p ~ R |vp Yq{y v[p pxj [Kvp xj vf Rl [~Nx. vzpv ly [ll [x v{yj YGg~x Ypl{ [v x. n{ |vp Yq{y rf{x {~~ x. Spr~ vp RYzz rDapYM xp ~z, nv [Kvp ~Y Yq{y RyKu Yyp yfry [x Rxylp lv {ryxf zY cY ~M{nx |vp {ryx xx pv ltNx. A Rp{ ~M{nx xp pv 1960 Rrz v~x ~f vyf cpx Rlyf WY x.
yf {G Rnn Rxylp p x~ lyjx. vy[v [y ・z lyxp Ãr npY rv ~tql R Yy[l Xf A{ {xp Y{y Yy [vf p {x rj{l ~v[ n rv ~tql n Y{y { t. pvl 1960 cz 25 { ~pxp lvf rpj x{xY ~x q Yy [ppf Rxylpf x. R l oKva Rzrx RyDx.
{xp r~ p ~fv WY [fv [p [vf Yq{y{z Yfxl ~ Yyp [x p{ x{f NYxY ztj ~ lpYf r~ x. Yq{y{z Yfxl R{~p Rr~ vyp nz[xf [ny r r~ lf vt nzx [y{xY z~ rlvY zt. K {p f pzpN rzpx ~vzpv R{z , px Rplxfv r t. pzp |}xp f Wy{ ~l[xY rfp [l. Rxylp n Tf ~Ktpo xx YfYl{Y ry [x Rly Y{yp Rxylp vvf vyp arr xx r~no [jpYyxYf Yplyll{ uy t. K t{ Yzpv p[l Rxylp arr vvf [~ lv Rxylp xx px arr{ Yl{p RYM}jx Yy [ll x. R{~px Yplyll{ R{~p {x arr Rxylpf Y[p YynyxY RlpK lvf np{p z~ x.
pvl Rxylp[ {h lpK x. Tf n p~j Rr~ pzp{f ~Y {pl r~zYf pxx x Rxylpf Rr~ pzp{fv x x. [y{yxY z~ ~{x Yyp Rlyv r{rl {ryxY vxv z~r~ p{j n lv v~Y {frl, llyp[p ztj ~ Royl yj f Rf {pl RxK vM[ px. Sl }Yy lxY [{p lf rx Uyvxp ztj ShK Yjp n ~M{nx {h Y x.
1964 |{nz UrxY zt [vf ~l R [yYp {h [p nnx |{nzxf Rll x. 1965 W . A. Urx p [ll x.
K {p f ~M{nx {ryx yfry Svl razl{ r{ܻx x. ~M{nx {ryx [p n|p r{lvf |{nz, r~z, ~ ~v[K o Rxlp{zp Rxylpf Ryop zt. 1965 pY vp{y [y ~[vx |} ~vY Sx S[~xp n|pxY Yyppf Rf ~x. Wv n|px R~vf rj ~ Rx Rly xyrx cYxY ~ѻx x. R[ Yl{p {| { X Wv n|pxf rnpK { Rn~ nM|px rf~ly zYxf Rl n{z z~ lv np t{l, ~NDb ~{x rtq R~xp |}exp[ ~KKzpxY tYY p{y Sx r{l{p Rly Tf n|pxY Yyp z~ n Ryop Y x.
A Rp{ Ryopx r[l R Wv n|px ~q tYY [x x. zYN ~M{nx |vp {ryx [p zY xlxp Sx Yl Y x. ~ txvp ~yvp ~y~ X Y n|px vl r[vf tp { Rly ~M{nx {ryx ty zYxf y{yjx { rv R{~m{ Wx x. Wlp rfp zYx o yf{z n|pxp ~q Rf Ryop [z RNx. 1969 {~M rc pxYl{x ~q rzrpx ~r~no vp v[~x~x l[x {x rc ~{Mopx rllfv X p{z.
Yvxp xyr yf{zp n ~M{nx nM|px R[x vf rfp [l Rly rmv xyr ~M{nx |Z{ tzxvl, Spr~ pnMzplx, cMvx, Yph{, RvY{, lxzplx xp yf{z n rf{p l{l zY vGfp rz x. 1969 {~M ~M{nx {ryx Yy[p xvf vyfN y{l{ll { ShYh ~l {~xY zt. Wx vl vy xx pK Yyp z.
A Rp{ 1971 vx v~x Rxylp nz[xf [nyf Rxt{p x ~x r{z Rxl ~v[ y{l{ll vl vM rxf [x x. 1972 [y {lܻxp Szz R~ v lxv ~M{nx {p{p Yr vf yjx Y Rxylp ~M{nx ry r~z, vfM YMY R|x, ~{~l ~Z {h~fp, ~` ~{ R|x, |{zZ vj |zr R|x R R| ~Y X~~ lv {ryx rz Y x.
l Yzxp lyp lpYfl {h ~M{nx {ryx {p{p Yr Y, r~z ~~{Y{ ~x v {h Yyp [ cpx[ Rxx {p{p k p[ A. . Rxylpf A {p{p n|x, n|x {|xp ztj ~Kvp l[ ~ zvf K zrx Y~{l rvj{l pl. A Rlp Q cx{Mopry |{nzx ~l~ ~Kvp Urx, tzxK thp yc ~Kvpx, rzrpx Wvzx R[ph {n nzxp rpv vp{ n RaMx [y{ Urx, cx Un~ Yyp zn r|~x ~{x ~q rpx Y n|tpo, rv rpܻx ~Kvpx, Spx ycx [p ~v l[x, yj |{nzx yj rr [y{ pvx Q zY cprlv ~p rpv Q zYuvp ~Kvpx Rx Sp ~{zrxY rv.
Rn {p f ~M{nx {ryx zY{ ry {rl lyj lyxp Rl n~ [jpYf x R{~m U Rl. ~M{nx y |z [x ~{MopxYf v r Rl. n~Y Y YKYf, z rrK vox r cpl{ {p{p v{p |z {ryxY [hp[ A. . Rxylp pK R~{ vp{ l{x Rn n lv {h ~M{nx pK {pl {Y}x Rlrly {hp Rxy n~ UrY}{p tz ~.
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