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yj ~x
.WK. - .A. ycrY} n~xy

Rvy {vnv

Ktplf YDDx v rfN Upp ~ Acpl{yx. ~ Acpl{yx[ UnnDa ~{u{x npp lyjx YDDxf [~ Acpl Sx r ~ѻx Rry YvxYf x.
l YYzp f[p RpY YYz Acpl{yx Sx { rfN lt[l lyjx n~ vqY tz ~ Acpl{yx lyjxf tj {jx. { òxlvY { lyjx t~lvp YYzp UnnDb Acpl{yxf ry vf ll Yx. K lyjx[ ryvp Jyppf Acpl{yxf vl {~Y nyppf ~x.
~ Ryc{ ~ cYxY X{pf [YK Yyp Y ~nnY lGf{Yf{l vxK pY rrl R~Y r cpl{f xyK, RhplGfK Yyr vnz vpyK{ypf Yp rvjY p{ Rp rxp n ~[ Y K lyjx .WK. ycrY} x. .WK. xp p vN ycrY} xppx.
tfy [y{rllN vyYh S {zYh Yyz p RyD lply y {[plv vG p l ycrY} v yz[ vn rl { .WK. f {vz Rxx p az~ ycrY} x. lp{pp p Rzp ycrY} ppK .A. ycrY} ryz x. Tf tz np Yyzxp ycrY} {{ x. K rlp[ vN tzRll tz[zz np [vy yYp ylpxY vlxx.
Yh R{x ~fv R~Y [xp[ Y Yyny {p{p r ~vf ry{ ~ .WK. vn rl Urpp WYn~ Rf~x RpN [{rllN x. Rxx vpv cpl{ {p{p r ~vf tz vzz .A. ycrY} n ry x. X Urpp WYn~ p{~x r vMl ~{ x. A vn Rxx Sr {~y r{Yf r~x.
ycrY} ~nyx ~x npv vzpv r~z [x [zz DvpH nzxf x. W S[vf {[v IJh{fl Urp rpYK r X{p òYG IJh{fl, rrp IJh{fl nY}xp x xpp WYz razl{ t.
pvl S[v R{~p Yy [vf r X{p rx[ Ywy{zf t~~x. X{p Rlp r{z tzx { .A. ycrY} {Yz p[~v [K Rllp r yz xp Rny pvxp Rvlppf rfp [l. r yz [xp WYl rx[ Ywy{z {h Yx. yY tNx. Wnpp[p nNN x. nNN x.
rrl cpl{f RhplGfK Yyp f lp Yp rvjY p{ Rp rxp n ry vf r~tf p{ ~v YzY xpf ycrY} r{z vnvx { .WK. f cpl{ yj ~x x pvY rftpnx. K ~v cpl{[ Szzv r 1936 {~M yc vplj ~u{f ly[ {n { bpn |z ~Z{p Ktplf vpݲ{yx z~ rl {jx. W Xf bpnxf z tj {Mjx Yyp rf x. W~ Yyp rf ~fYxY pYh{ [z rzq[p cpl{ Rlyf xvf X ry x.
Wlp ~f n~ {~yY SYv{ { ptz cpl{f ~{x Y yj ~x 1945 vx 18 { p yc vplj ~uN yj [ cpl{[ Y [p RN[|z Yl{Y Yyp ~x ~ nxtoxY {z ~ vlYf r~{ x [xx. K {p f Xf {vz Rxx p az~ ycrY} Yypz yz ~ vyj rY}YxY z~ Yfxl Yyp ~ Rly vzz .A. ycrY} r yz lyj x r~ { ~vc ~{YxY z~ [p Rlyl RpY cpl{ Rlyl r~nxY zt t.
.WK. [ vyp r~ lvp {p{p r ~p YpY p{ll ycrY} r{zpv x xl xx ~l r cpl{ .A.f Rxx[p ~ { vpݲ oyxf ly[ Yyp z~ Szz ~ѻxx. Al A Szzv rܻ}r Y .A. Ywyf t~ {p ~v {h Yyppf rfp [llx. pp p cpl{ Rlp p[j Szzvf Rvly{ v ~]ylpx n r yz[p Rxx[p ~ { vpݲ rfN {ջ{p z~ Szz ~x. K tz{l Szzv ~v X vpݲ oyxf ly[ vf Srl {Nx.
Wnl X ~ѻx YwM {hrYx. Ywyfv [p R pvxcp rlxf Rl~p ltN {YYp Rl vh ~[p, YM nv[p t Rvh zp~{p Rl r[p Rvhx rpv xyf [h{z x. vh ~[l Yz [x ycYvfl ~~x xvp r~Y Yyp .A. W{y yc vplj ~u{f Rly v{yjxY pv{v ly[xpv rl x.
1947 r{l{ v v{yjx .W~. ~ppxY vl[ ropl{xp WY~l cY rY}xp tzRll R~pxf Rl zYp ly[ Y X tzRll vpݲ x. Ktplf R~pxf ly[ { vpݲ {x .A. [ Rxx[ WpK, .WK. [ zY rl { zY}vp ycrY} x. rrl [pf lvp Yv Yv RYyxf Ywy Rqx np X{p[ R~{pp [~ Yp, X{p{ lz rp {h [pp Ywy op{lpf Wy{ o rx{y{z [llx.
{M}{ ` x rn|xY yl { Ktplf rN {h Yyp p [lp {lx Yy[l [x R{ynn x v~xYv Sl Y . Rq [x Ywy xp[p Ywy rzpx Y [Ktyz Rp vl rh{Yf rl {. T` Yppx Ywy {h vf pK lv q ShK xf [KtMf xYf nYYf x xl x. K Rvp~~ òx{p p{vf .A. ~x Urv {~ [llx. {[{p ~q ~y cz xcp YvxY K yply U{vp{p rj .A.f A ~q ~ UrYyxY ycxp pzt. lvp[ cpl{f ~{x vf x{Y pvv rtq Yp[f{p ~ .A. 1951 cz v~x W~.hJ.RM.. tjhypxY vl WY~l cY rY}x y rMzKplN yno rY}xf [x R{~mN X r~r~p yno rY}xf [x WYv rn[zx x.
Sp r~ 1952 r{ rMzKpl v{yjx Q zY n~ rY}xf tzRll R~pxp ly[ {j x. .A. ~{u{xp {j, lKrl rn[zxY x. ~{Yf tj {np{ lt Xy{ tzpp{l pl. pvl X R~oyjx pS{~x. {yY X[ v{yj Yfxl{zf UrYy vf {xp o rl{zp r [y{ypf rn|x ~ p RyD YpY r v[y [l vyxp x[p y Yyppf x. K t{ Yp{Yj .A. {v Yyxf p[ ~nx ~{p rn|xf [xx.
X xp f [y{y ~ѻx WY r~Yx. RpY r~ r, v[y, Yh [l vy v{ x. ~xYf Rppf RzrpllY{l pl{ vy v{ vnnf [~ {px ply Y .A. Sp vf t~~x.
p v {yp ĻNx. X ĻN Wrvjx. nYf, lpf, lyf pvj p .A. R~zf l f[ll x.
lv~f Bp 뻃Yf lv~ bpn np{. Rr ~~p[ R`f Rl xpp Wr. lyj pn? vYn lv~ xpp? p p{ll pvjx.
qvx, qvx l[l Xf x.
A .A. y t~p Yl Y n{l{p lp{l{p WY {y. W{y v{yjxp X tzRll R~px r~{pv p[ll x. p{l 1956 {~M r{ v{yjx Q zY n~ rY} vcp WY~l ryvj {zp Srl { X { bpn 16000p tzRll R~pxp p{l rMzKpl{f [xx. Ktplf cpl{[ rop r|p vpp p[p ~ .A. rMzKplN Y v Yl{Yv A r|p rtq{ x. Xf tj cpl{ tj lx. r cpl{ {p{p RpY ru {~{z vp p{ ycrY} ryrM {~{z y{z { {l{ t. [xp, WHyxp n{~ Bpv {z{Y .A. [ {~, r, [z r ~x. [pf tz{l R~oyjYK Yyp Ywy xp vGf vf Ywy rpl [p Avf ~x vf K Yzx l .A.f x. X vl ~Kvl Yy[l Ywy rpl ~ Spr~ [pf Rqx Y Yy [vf q Ywy xf vf R{| px. Ywy x[ vprx Rp{ K Yppx ~xn~f p Ywy ztp Yppx J ~f vf p x. Rqx ~y WY [xYf x xl x. [xf R~{ppp 3/4 zt v R{Mx x.
f Rvly{ x r{f llvpx ztvf X Rzrѻx apY {{ xcp Yvx ~Kvl Yy[p {{ lpNx. .A. ~x lx zYv ~lf zt p nY {x Ywy rpl ~Kvl { n{~l, apY {{f rv{ r~ rhzz Yr n{~l x. K ~x Yfxl{zf X r~r~ ~{jzzY vp rl zY}vp ycrY} n ~ѻxx.
.A. [ ~x ~vc Yfxl{zf X[ nxty q { rzfN np npp ~vy~ ~pxY vx[p ztj pvq ~x[x. ~x n~ [jp rjp bpnxYxpf Rx z [ [jp lKt tl Yppf ppx. RlK xY lKt tl R{~p {x. .A.fl, Rxfl Yppf S {pp nYh tl x. W{ RYylJtxY p{p RpY ~v pYv vnvzp {~ z~ [Kvp p{ ycrY} {~ vn ~zx { |z K~x r Rll Yyp rGf, , lz r, , v, W{ c{z. Yyp rGf, .A. Sl R~{p Rpu{ Y Ryx.
1956 tjhypxY vl R[v { R{~mN vzpv yj .A. n~f x. A Xf R{| Yvp Rv oyxx R~. .A. [ rly {x vzp Rr rY}x [h p[v. vzpv RpY Rxf Rv oy z rY}x ~m{y Yy[v x x. Rply{ X uy[ll n{ r lply. pvl 1959 ~rlKtM 26 { tjhypxY vl[ ~ vyjxl ~v[v 1960 vMl r{l{ppf xj v v{yjx .A. rycx x. x 1960 cz r{l{ v{yjxp tzRll R~pxf ly[ { Wx p [ll x.
1964 {~M Q zY n~ rY}xf U {x WlyK ~t YzxY pN. YvpljYy{p Q zY n~ rY} ycx rycxf rl vf UrxY x. A rY}x vpݲp ly npY vnz rY}xf WYYy [. A RlK vpݲ{yxYf ztj vnz WYz yrxz 50,000Y x. W yrxz 50,000Yf Rlx p vn rpܻx ~r r~YK {x pK Rl~~. .A. {p{p X{p z~ ltN A vnz vp Ãr [jx. pvl Wv vnz ~ rYz Y v[ bpn xYxp vv ~ pYj. vf bpnx p tzRll cpl{ vnz{zf Yjpp t x xp Wv vnz rܻ}r Y x. ~v{ tjhypxY ycx rycxf rl x. Sp r~ 1965 vMl 22 r{l{ v v{yjxp .A. rycxf rl x. pvl ryvp r~ n X lv cpl{ {p{p ycx YMxz [p Rn xp ~{x Yx.
A [p RlK pY ycYxYf Yw Wp Wlv v[ l{l rY}YxY xY[ {~f [h {nx.
vpݲlv[ {pxf lz [zn, fx rzn?
t f Wv {~ YpY R~x.
xy[p .A. ~v[ [x YpY[p ztpp p xp rlyx. Wf lz ~q {~xp[p vnz ztx. RlK pY {pxf lz [~vf l[zz YpY[p X jx vnzY [. WYz yrxz x~xY l~xY { X[ T` v~Y {frp vlY lt[p Ry jx vnz [{ nvx. A Yzxl Rn vpv Rxl z~ vnz SrxK, zK vM[ vpݲ{ypf, Rv{ypf t. pvl .A. {a ~[l vnz Rl {p [ R`y ~ ~zx.
l{l pY .A. vvf l{l vlvxY vnvzp {~f [xx. .A. ~ѻx S~lrrN Wf vf ~Yvpx. l{l Y ylpxY vllx, R WY qx. vf f Yw xpp ܻxp{. xY{l Rl pnn x R~x.
~YY{ Rl [ t l{l, yrxz ~xY pK ܻxp{, x .A.f ĻNx.
WpK AY vf npp. vv Yw xpp Y pl{x ѻx. .A. vpݲlv ĻNx. l{l .A. Rlf vnz npfv ~xn~ pK [K [xY Wlpf {[p RNx.
Rp vpݲlv Rr RKv vyj. p Sp Rpv {h Y Yy [pp xY p{ Spp. x ĻNx.
WpK vpp KY Ry[p [zz {h Y Yy [pp{. vl {~ xK v [{z rll Rzz xpp WppK. xp yrxz ~x [x Rlf ppx.
WYz yrxz ~xYf rGxY zf [l x.
1965 bpnx ryj r~ .A. p{l v{yjxYf Srl p{jx. Spr~ X[ WYv tzryll{ {x ~x ny{px. A ny{p lv[ RrM xp R~yj cpl{ {p{p ~{x Yyp vx. A {p f X[ {vz rl avz ycrY} rz~ ~{xf t ~ѻxx. n{ RYzx x[~ ~ Rly, lp{pp { vpn ycrY} nnx |{nzx r~lYzx ~{x Yx. Tf tz ~xyp { [gux t~z n {y S[K Yfxl{z yl{ ~x.
pvl .WK.[ .A.[ ny{p ~x npv lv rx{yp vp n|rzpxf Wp v~zYj rz Yyp ~ѻxx. A {pfl .WK. [ Wv vx { vly Wvzp yl[ ny{p x np[p nnpY n|rzpxf R{Mj{ ~x. A zY}vp ycrY} Re cMF ycrY}x. v{p nnpv ycx vpݲoy Rv oy y. {lvp rMzKplN vpݲxY {p yrv ycrY} n .WK. [ x.
apY {{ ~vp r~{ vyl{z cz| xcp Yvx n, yv Xx ~{Mop {ryx n xv{ { .A. yj cpx[ ShK r|p, vv{l r|p, {vM[ r|p ~vp ~z, nv, v~zK unxp ly{ ~v cxYv ny{pf U[l r~z Svf n ~x n|rzp lx {~y ~~Y pYh{ Rrvj{ vl toY vn {~jx. {a{p, }jxp vnz ~ pY lv lv bpnxYxp {p{p vnz xnK Yy R{~px jx [vf lv Yyx n Yj KKx. rxp t~xp [vp vp [xx.
lv ~x opx, u{u[ ~Krl, xp {p, [{ v}p Yr Y .WK. .A. ~xypf R{~px lv [{z y{z r{ R x. UY~ Y X{p[ nr{zp r {~ nY ShK RYYy nY t[p Sly Yy S nr ~pp Yy [vf rz vnzzzf ~ {x ~x nr RlYy [ll pK [K {~xp[ R~~j Yrxp lvpf vyjx {zq [ppf ~{p t. X{pf rx Uyvxp z t RYYy ~x [jpY { ShK R {x cpl ~{x {p{.
lvp[p r~ lv ny{p cpl ~{xf Wlx vl tzryll r tq[p ~ .A. 1967 p{KtM l{ lvpf Rnyx, [y{ Y n~ [jpY R~Y cpl{ y nv vly ~vrYy yz R{~p ~v Nx. x xvf YzYf ry lv l{lY ~v[ Ylt~ Yyp .A. lv rj vp Rnyx Y ny{p [p v~ ĻNx.
v[ n|rzp lx S{yx xz vf lp{. avz rll p rz~x. v[ tzryll{ vpn lvx. vpn rl Y{ vfl {h p n|rzpx Yyx xz v lp{. .A. W n|rzpxf r~lx { tzryll{Y lt p[l avz rl Rn {Mlvp ycx Rv{yx.
[gux ycrY} RyY}Y zYKx. t~z ycrY} vpݲ{yx. X vfl {h p n|rzpx Yyx x ~l vpn ycrY} vyf {Mlvp cpr{yxx. zYN rv ry{~xx. K ~x npf r cpl{[ |z YvllY Rl{ yjp n|rzpxf r~ |z bpn ~Z{Y zt cx[jx Yy K lply{zf Avf v[ ~z~j zY lll { .WK. lll { .A. ycrY} ~x.
RYM}x lc~ rpvp xl, f{p, Yl Y{p, lyp rvjY p{ ~lyp n nvpx {p [jxp xl { .A. Y{nl ~yzx. aKx. y pl vx. X l ~fY xY pl. ~ pY p~~ nxf }jxf, [y px. ~{Yfl [y Yy [ppfl p x. v op~YpoxY np [p Urpp n x [x A ~xzz p Yf [p pnY z~x. pvl yj cpl{[ ~l l v ~f{yx {x .A.x. A Rp .A. pvx ~v r~lx.

[cYK Tp WY~y Y~ tz
YlyK ~ {{l lj Ytz pt
[K [jp xl Ulv Rvp
K Yfl plyK YK pv Yy

YlyK ~[ {{l Y~y ~xp ljY pYpp {[ .WK., .A. ~xy -yj ~x- ~f ~{jY R{n r{ lvpf p~~ RYfxlYK pYx. Rpp[ n p[llx.

~Y~ Y
vp Y[Krx