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{{x ryxf RN Y Y ch rY
ryxf ryl{ Rw~xp z~ ~yj t{fl ~Y}

{p RyY}Y ~p vz~mpfryvf Y Ul~ [l ~mpx rtq{ xn vr {yx Y}jx Y Rxy. {p Rr KcM cpyz c[l cx~x Rl zop vN.

{p ~fp v vv ~ܻx xl Uj~K Rlf yppf x. lp ÃrxY nyj [fK Rz.
Y l~lx Uly ~fp vp r{ Y YjhxK {|xp ~fp vf [p R. A ~x YjhxK p{l v n ~v[ y{ppf yny y{ ~vl {.
pDYh RYYyxpYzK Rly Y SY RyY}Y tKv q nvp rtz v Sxf Rnn vv Uj~K lll{xp f [.
vv ~fp RlM [{p v{ n {p Y tzYfN SzYY {l prl tKt ppf x. ryY cG xp zYrfM xp v[p [p [fv SzYY ~x ry nppf {. pY v{ n vv ~ܻx SyjN v rn|x Yp[ tGf rYf ry p| Yyppf ~vl x. vv ~fp n nyj z~ rx ÃrxY ry r{.
vv ~ (15) RYYyxpYzK {N p[py A-9 (xrpx-p{y) rop vM[x Rly Yf~ nyj [fK R. vv Yf~l Rp Yp[ RyY}Y r{yY Svf xn vv ryx ~z~K Y.
KcM cpyz c[l hx~ xfl {p 57 {p ~pYxf Rxl uf r~ vv vxvf WY. KcM vpn yj~ Rjp rv{p |} tYxl. pp YMpz ~u}j {zYz Rjp ly{p ~ y˻Kpl{l, pp YMpz TY~l ~pxY Rjp Rf{p rtz y˻Kpl{l, KcM ~cx rpp Rjp lp{p [ct y˻Kpl{l vv vxvf WYYy [.
15 { RxK Yzx RYYyxpYzK {N p[py rllf ûzfyxY Rp { rn|x ~f A -09 vM[x n~f { ûz fM lyY rvj u rn|xYf Yh{j |} tY uf r~ Wp U~p 6.00 rvj {p f W tzx Rzz [l. Wv rn|x nyj ~fp Rj K ~v[ x. |} tY uf r~ Rlrl Yy[l rn| rtz uf r~ {l uy Y.
vv rn|x Rzz [v ~q xrpx Y S RyY}Y {{z ~p Y YjhxK xY [p{ . Sp YjhxK lyYv vz ~fp{zv ~fp vp S{l Yyppf v uf r~ ~vl {. Ypf l{zYy{pfl Rn [vf YzxY pnp nyj ry Wzz Yyppf . vv ~fp ~v[p RYYyxpYzK n~p A -09 vM[xf ûzfM nYY rvj R~ppxf uf r~ ` {.
vN S [vp p{lvf Y YjhxK xn{ z (Waves) {|xp ry Wzz Y. ~fp K ~tp {Yz Yyppf v Y WY UrYvxY x. rj RrYy{p v[K vxK{z zYx t yf{z RyY}Y R| ul Yyp ~. W~. {M[x K tKt ryxY Y Wzz Y. Rf{p rtz y˻KplN uf YjhxvY RYYyxpYzK ~fp vv ryxf zY {. WY{yv R { vY ~ ~tpf Y~~, {vpx, Yzplx { lll{xp R.
~tp ໅~ npY rvj vv ryxf zY { Rly X{p rx ÃrxYf r~ ~vp lll{xf rl.
1928 rn{ vv ~ W~. {M[x K tKt Y [~ ry Wzz vf x [pp [~ { [~ {M[x. vx rn{ nexp nnp ~ vf X{p[ pK{z vzYy nv ~. W~. xp{p pKYy .
vpv {pzpYzK Rf{p [ct y˻Kpl uf YjhxvY ~ lpYf n vv ryxY Wzz vp ~tp x npY y[ly yz[l Y.
Y l~lxp R{~p vl y~xY R ryxY Wzz vf Sh R t{ Yp[p Y [x p[py pxY Yyj RKvp Yy t rY|xl ~v[ vx y~xY R ryxY n xp ~Yx vz R. Y f ry 1990 yp Yq{yf y~xY ryxY Wzz Y.
pvl rx ÃrxY Rll [~ ryxf zY { Rf{p rtz ~t x xm lll{xf rl {. X{ xl ~fp ryvjf r~x.
rj RrYy{p v [K r l~l{ vxK{z x [pp ~. W~. [~ vv ryxf x[p R t{ rz {. KYf tx{pp nxY p. Rr K [p l{v rY}j Yy[p xp{ Sx Bpv lll{xYf vj vf Rxp Rr ~pp ~p{. xx xn vr pp cpyz ~yl p~Y vv yxf r{~x.
Sxl v{ n{zf vj v ~q ~fp ryvj ~tpf [~ vj R{yj r{ zt .
~ (15) px |} tYx rvZ rtz uf r~ WzzY ry{zp Y l~lxp 28 Y vyv{f rl 29 Y l{z { t{ Y r{h {vy{zp l{y . vyv{f rl { Y 25 Y[ pK Wpv Y r{h {vy{zp x. Yp Ãr {l{Yv rry Y{{n Yzl{YY vztyz ry{z ~x ~v[p A{ p{l{ppf .
vv ~fp Rj RYYyxpYzK {N p[py Yf~ ~f A -09 vM[x nY{ Rp S RyY}Y {zzY Svf Y ~z~K Yyp RlM vv ryx Wzz . pDYh ~f RYYyxpYzK {N tfy nY{ {pl r~ YpnY x SY RyY}Y r{y A -09 vM[x nY{ Y v Yp[ ~z~v . A -09 vM[xf tfyp Sxf xp 57, 58 ~pY{z S [vp Rh Yy zpDxf Rl v {Yv Yp[ SzYYx .
pvl Yzxv A -09 vM[x n~p S{p Rl Y r{M SzYY {l v ry Wzz . r~[x ~Yy (12) vv rn|x xn{ t Yp[ h~yxY n v ryxp {p~. 57 {p ~pYx uf r~ vv t {ply ~fp K ry{z yl . vv t (17) lp {l{Y Yp[ rry Wzz Y n A{ {Mm Y. vv ~fp{zp Y 15 Y vy . v ~tp ܃Y rvj l{z zn.
v 57 {p ~pYx uf r~ ~p RYYyxpYzK ~f lyvYp nY{ xp vM[x Rlrl Yy [p t.
vv rn| Rlp Sxf [x rtz uf r~ pp p zpD p[y ~v{ R~ppxf ` {p ~. Rr p zpD p[y ~v{f ûzfM rvyY R~ppxf [~ ~p{. xx xn vr{yx SYl 13 { ~qp Y x. vv ~ܻx ~Yy {p f 57 {p ~pYx rtz uf r~ zpD p[yx nYj Y{yf ûz fM lpY R~ppxf ` . ûz fM 7 Y ry R zpD p[yx nYj ~v{f uf r~ ` vl ~v[v Y l~lxp UlM uf r~ vv rn|xf Yq{ppf rfp[p t.
K ~fp RlM [l { p Ãrx ryv ﲻ[xM }Np ~z{ xfl {p 58 {p ~pYx nyj [fK vn Y RyY}Y { q nvppf ~vl x.
{ppYzK tfy rn|x { YyKtYzK S RyY}Y {zz ûzfM lpY rvj rn|xY vv t~rp (18) {p f Rzz[p .
pp YMpz zz ap~ xfl { p{{p [vj y˻Kpl{l, KcM ~y rxYy xfl { n{p [ct y˻Kpl{l ~ rn| nYf vp Yp ~l { fM Rf~xxY rvj rn|xY pp YMpz ~pY F~x xfl {p WY~{p rtz y˻Kpl{ xn{ Rlrl Yy [.
t (17) U~p 8.00f rvj Rywj [fv rx rYf RY YzxY r{. n{z 12.00 {p f Yp[ |Yvl{ lp tYM 15 Y n ~v[p tzx Rzz [vf uf r~ ~vl {. vv rn|x tzx Rzzvf Y l~lxp ry nYY vx{{ n A{ R~MmY x.
~fp K UrYY Rp {n[l rn|xY { YyKtYzK ûz fM nYY rn|xY R{yjx {p r vv 18 xl 58 {p ~pYxp ryxY Wzz Y.
x{p [vj ໅~{p [vj y˻Kpl {ppYzK p[py rn|x Y RyY}Y {zz {l ryp. v RYYyxpYzK, Rl R{f rn|{zpl Y YjhxK [p{ Urv { tzx xn{ppf Y l~lxp rx{y [l. v rtz ufr~{z ~xf [{p v ryY xp ~ zYrfM n x [.
U~p 9.30 f rvj Rywj ~fp ~{~ 1.30 {p ly r{ Rly vv ~fp{z Y 23 Y vyv{f rl x. 27 Y l{z zn t{ r{h {vy{zp x. vv ~fp{zp ~tp ໅~ npY r t.
v{y Y SYy R vv |Yvl r~ tKv R nxY, Y rvj U~ r~ YpnY x ~Y~ Y WY. A RlM tYM xn R[z SYy Rl. vv r~Ypn Sx R [jpY [wy {{z Yr Rl. Rr[ yny ~tpf vv xn R[z lyjx v rvjY p{ A{x Y x R c tGfp, vyU[z r{ S{l Yyp Y RyY}Y {zz lyjx Yyppf ~{ .
K ~x toY vn Yp[ S RyY}Y { lyjx Yyp rtz uf r~ Sxf Rnp ~.
Y ~opx vv RyY}Y {zzf Urv tzx xn{ v{ zpDxf Rl v {Yvf Urv Ul~ nyp ~x.
Wvpv xrpx, vvz, p[MYz, zz S RyY}Y {{z tzx Urvxp lt [vf n Ypf ~{ Rl. A xK vlY xrpx ~p 55 {p 53 {p ~pY vv Y RyY}Y { qvf ~pp ~p ~ x.
f Rvly{ vzz rn|x tzx Rzz[l 57 {p ~pYx uf r~ vpYzK {l ` {p ~. xK xp vpYzK R {{l A -09 vM[x r Yf~ Ypf R {p ~ vpYzK Y [v n Ypf {n[l x.
57 {p ~pYx uf r~ K {p f YYz R~ppxf n ` {p ~.
ﲻ[xM ppnp Uh{ll xfl {p 59 {p ~pYx uf r~ p pxy YzrN tzx l{y Yyp ~. pxy rzv R~ppxf v uf r~ ` {p ~x. v{ rzv `f R{l rzv rry{ ppx {zXx ~fp K ~p pxYxY {p ~{MjK vv ~ (15) lv rn|x pxYxpf Urn~ . 59 {p uf r~ ~p K ~x {p f Y~l |K J~ xp Y Yq{y n Rlrl Yy[p t.
K {p f Ypf p[py v yx tzx n Yv Yvxp R {ppf rfp[p Rl. v tzR vzN ~v{f Rl v {Yvf n lpvyrr {N Uly tKK ~f YHh{p rM RppnpYzK nY{ Rp S RyY}Y {zzY lvf Yfxl x .
ycx v pxy n~p Sxf Rnn aKvz, RzKrz rn|{z ~ Y l{p Rl rYy{p Wv [K Rly Y rzp rn|x Rlf [~ .
Y l~lxp ~fp ryvj [jpY p{lvf {Yn [{p v{ ~MmY [{p ry vz{Y vv ~ܻx Wzz Y.
vv ~ܻx Y pxY ruYyp ~` ~p lp nYYf ry v n |}l{xY x. v tn R| {p zt[l lyly vl zpDǻx {GfYDǃ r ruYyp ly rjp u[l tYM ~l ~Zru[ {~Yf YM W 07 ryY xp lyp 17 U~p 6.35 f tKt {p~p z.
vv ryxf ry R{~p {yf ruYyp rj tj Ur{~xp x[x zrp ~K 21 { [j~vy{f x. A SYl 15 { x. Spr~{ Wzz { [{p ry{zp r~{ ruYyp[ bxyr ~{Y Y {J Rh{z vlY r {x pl.
zpD, |{vh{zf {xw n~p ryvplzYzK Y pxY ruYyp xp Wp t{ xp {~Yf 18 ~{~ [ 27 YM xp lyY xn{ ry. vv {~ R~ppx { [{p RyY}j rno ~Y vo~mp nYY n vv ryxp {p~. vv ~mpxf [{p v{ rypp n{ {l{f x.
Wvpv vv 16 [{p v{ l{l SzYY lyY ~ry [ll x. vzN rYSrr YpIJG lGf{zp R{yjx Yy lp Yp[ R lY}Y lyly vox~mpxY n U~p 6.30 f {p~. vv ~mpx Y pxYx[ rl az~ Rpl ly R[x lpY t{ tn R| Yy[p .
vpv UhxMYGfYzK {{f ûz fM lpY Ulp { xn UrYyj ~rxK [th{Yf n 16 U~p 6.40 f [{p ryxY Wzz .
K Rxp [p[fv Y pxYxp ~p SzYY {l [{p ry Wzz vl ~v[ Y pxYxp l{l uxf rl{ Rl. Y pxYxpf ~` ~vf Rp lp ~x [vf K ry vN ~ Rl.
[hK [{p ry vox pY v{ pDYh vn v Ypf nyj ryxY Wzz Y.
v pDYh vn { Y tGf Y}jx W [x pY v |} xl, tz]px (SBS) }Y K tYx (RABS) WY{ vv ryx Wzz Y. vlY p[wy v ~vN ~fp{z pY v{f ~ p o R{~m{z rp [l v Y xl{zf pY v{f Rp WY { Ry {M[x ryY tGf 49 Y x v{y Ypf nyj ryxY Wzz Yyppf . {ppYzK 58 {p ~pYx ~v[ ~fp {p Yp[ ~xf {zzrh n~p Yp[ ~xY YjhxK [p Avf vv Y tGf ul Y t{f ~Y r . n{z 11.30 ~f ~{~ 3.30 nY{ R { ~fp |z rvjx xl lpY N[ ryY xl 07 Y p| Y 25 Y vyv{f rl { t{ pY v{ ~qp Y x. vv ~fp pxY x [~ l{l pxY l{z z x.
K Rly {Nx{ RyY}Y ~p vz~mpxf Rl [{p RyY}Y rnox {p~vf r |} tY ~tp Rp Rlyv[ v vyK Y Y Y n~np lyj ch z~p {Nx{f rj R t{ rY}j{z Rl. vv ryxf r Y Ypl{p r~np Y ~vYxp r~np {p RyY}Y ~p vz~mpx R~z ~vzpYzK {{ R~ppx ~f R t{l, X{p ryxf ry {N S~vll Rw~xp z~ ~ Rlx ~oY ܻtp t{ n RyY}Y R| zoxY ~qp Y x. vv {N S~vll vv ch r ~p ul Y Url rzp Yr n v .
Yp[ yo y˻KplN Y Y ~vYxp {p v{p ~ nYY ~~ vv rn|x RyY}Y R| ~vYxp z~ ~f Rlx .
vv ryx ~ { {p RyY}Y ~p vz~mpxf vv ~ܻx [x xn vr{yx RyY}Y rop ~v[ S vxK [p ~YDb vf Rvly{ Y ry Wzz { ~mp {l [~ ~x tz RyY}Y lll{x v~ tzppf Yfxl Y x.
vv ryx ~q Y l~lxp A-09 vM[x Urx[ Yy[p Yzl{YY R [p l t t{ vp r~ A -09 vM[x n~f |} tY Yvph ~tp xvf RyY}Y rop Yfxl Yy . {px ~p {~xp f to{Y p{p r A -09 vM[x R{y pYyppf RyY}Y R| vfv {[ tz[lln, Y l~lxp Sp rxcp [p Yzl{YY R rzxpYzv n~f [p R. vv ~nxp r~{ A -09 vM[x tzx v{ Rlf [vf xn vr{yx yjx Yy .
{p ~fp K Yr rpp YMxxY Sf Y 11 {p rtz tzRڻx Rjnp zo pp YMpz ~pY F~x 222 tz~pN tz~pr lplyf vv 25 ~f rlYy . vzRy ~fp ~f tzR vx{ 222 tz~pr{ ~ YMpz ~yl F~ Yzl{YY y˻Kpl vo~mp ~p oxY lplyf rl Yy . 11 {p rtz y˻Kpl p{ Rjnp zo z~ pp YMpz l~ AYpxY rl Y.
lll{x v~ x RyY}Y Rvl|x RܻMY zYK{yp xx x[l r~Y [l t~ ymxY Yyj[z th[vN xn v - rz~ vM[ toYx rY} vf [x R{~mN lv tzx rp{ v ~tp nnpY t~ ymx nv[p xK ~nx Y[l Yltf zY x. RyY}Y Rvl|x vv zop r~ Srz[v r yjy {~ ~Mjx tzvf [~ Ry r y ~l t~ ymxp N[xp [vp Yyn th[v{ vM[ toYx p{lp z~f Rj Yy Rll A Rj plY Sxf o{px . A vl R~z { xly rxY [p vM[ toYx ~ ~tp nnpY {v t~ ymx w [~ Rlyv[ v[ y~Yy p{l{[p . vxp Yrxf rl t~ ymx ~ zoxY vv nnpf lv RyY}Y Rvl|x zoxY t{ rp{ np tj { ~tp nnp{ t~ ymx nv tzlYyxp Yyj[z rz~x {l [p l . Yyj[z rz~x ~mpr{yxf r{ tj {p vv nnp{ Ywfv [p xvf R zox Ul~ [p . Sp pp{ ~mpr{yx Rl ܻnpv RyY}Y Rvl|x {l r~ pv Yqvf rx{y[p t.
RyY}{ [p ~zzvl{p z~l, RyY}Y R|{zf ~vfv ~x np z~l xp RyY}Y Rvl|x cpvo v[p lyv cpl{ p{l Yyn RyY}Y Rvl|xv Rlvp np v{p RnM| ~ RyY}Y R| vpv vcpl{ n Yzvf rl{p Rl. Rr ~x np Rn n~ {l {pp RN{~ ptz yf vf Uy ~p v{p ~tp ~ t{ vlYf{l RvlY v Yp[f{f Yyj.
~~ yp rMy
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