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Rvy ~vy
pY { [x ~v{

1916 Rrz 17 t[h tp~ yl{ll r{zf xxY Urpp x.
K Y{n zYN yc {p{.

45 K yvl Ypl{ yc rzpx rfp rpp lyK zvY pl.
zYN r[ tzN[{z yoxf rvjY p{ RvYp Ryc{ lMcp{zf n Rx{ xfrl vf {x pl.

Rvy {vnv
R[ NzrlYhx t [yppp~ ĻNx. ny{Y[ Rp[lx [p W{ Rp{xY R~p Y{y lll YpYfl pp ~lf yl{ll zKlvfl p. Wl xf R~{ Yf{ {p Rlx xp X A lyly ~{Yf r{~N pl.
ycYv ztjl pll xxf p U[px xlx. vzpv Rx{ ylprM M[~p tzY zfl, n{p{ Yw |pl cG Ypyvxfl Rll Y tp~ yl{ll zKlv Bpv yc ~u{Y Sq [ppf ~~ lyK RorpxY Rf zt pp x.
pY {{l [xY x xlx. r~z Rorpx vy { f RKv K xxf ~xv [ny y |zr U[pp{x.
1940 XYltM 03 W~. hJzN. RM. . tjhypxY Rvlv ~v[ { { ~v{ yl{ll lyx ~p~zz [ny y Yfxl Yy x[p {l { RnM|vl qY x. ny ܻnpf xrl v{Y x. ~x RvYK nyp f ~v{ zY vz ~ܻx ~vc ~{{p yl {p [l Y Slv aK, ~yz [ lx. {pl Bpv [xY vp A n{~ R[ lx YyYj ny{p ~ ~x[ l {f x. 1956 tjhypxY vlv zYN yc pxYx { r~{l ~v{[ ~ry p axN {p~Y R {x pl.
Wl 1959 ~rlKtM 25 { R[ k ~p~zxY [ lx nny [x x. lzN ~vyv tjhypxY R[vlvf { ltN W x. Tf r~{ Wlvp ~nfv pl rx [ll x. {x~ R{y 43 Y {p f ~v{ ny ܻnpY ~v[ vz{ l {{x.
tjhypxY R[vlv[ vyjxp R~yj {j Rx rvjY pN. | zY n~ rY}x n ~ ~ Yh ~y [x x. pxYl{xf ~~ ~{Y rY}x l ~ѻx pl.
vx Rl tjhypxY vllx[ lp Ry[pp.
prf[ny p~ xp rvZ Gf{plx R[p SzzK Y x. vzp Rv Yl r~{ Rx l{lp[ Rn~f ~ pvp rY} pxYl{x Yyf [llx. 1960 cz v~ r{ v v{yjx rY}x c}gxp rvjY p{ v yfv R[ R[vpx tzryll{p Up t{ rp. ny{pf R { rx[ Rh{ ry{ppf rvjY p{ yff R { R[v{yx[ Rh{ ry{ppfl Rxf ~x. zY S܃~x rmv {l{f Ypl{Y yc pxY{Y t{f rl x.!
Rx |{nz RorpxY ztN pl. Wl yc rzpx B RlK tz Y{y Yl~l rzYxYf {{l n{ {x n pl. Ypv v R[v rfN { {x W R[v vM {l { n tq [x pN. cpvxp zl WlyYvl, yj [K x{l ~p Rx{ xv yc lpܲY p{jY R pxY{Y t{f rl Yy t.
yc R|x Yvp {p~YK Yyppf Rx ~ fY r~tf {x pl. ~KrxY {lp {p{f p{ lply R Yyp Yzf Xp {p~Y R vf B px{ Rl[~{x. A Rp{ ~z ~{x {p{f | zY rrzp ~{xn, [Kvz Yvx {p{f [v~{Y Yvxn R Y x.
A 1962 {~yx. Yly[v {M ~M{ yܲY rlY x nxpf rp K rynnY tjhypxY vxf j. Rx Sl uYvl tno Ypl{. Yly[v xvf x[p tj cp{ 27 {x. YvpljYy{ K px Yz x p ~x.
K Rly W{Y Yw rz~ RY{ ~ ~fpz ~ppxY[ q vx, lv ~x[ Ylt RvllY f{x. Y{{l p{ W lyvY vl{ [ny R ~fpz R{~xp vp vp{n hx. vx A [p y R{~~p y~ Yy [llx. K [p { xl qv ~~~ lv rx t{ Rx yjx Y x.
lll K pv [ny Wpp.
vx lv rxf yYmpxp Yl Y x. M] YzxY Yw Rppnx zr {|xp Yfxl Y |}f RorpexY { r. n. W~. Yzylp R[ rx x.
r. n. W~. Yzylp Wf ~ѻx RKtzp[hx. WYz Rn vp p{ Yp rf rlYf yYmp RvlvY [ppf pK rx 3 l, 4 Y t[ Tfl {h { YzxY {x {x. yG {~p{fn vxf W Sl SYvp yYmp Rvlv [ppf x. r. n. W~. Yzylpf Sl SYvp [ny Wppf n Sh zt. R ~p lvp Yy[l y~ xx rx[ Yp lt{x. r. n. W~. Yzylp { { R[v vyf [~ A y~ R[vxf pK pp x.
A y~ v Yvpljx. R[vx Rl r~ Yly[v [x f R[vx ~ ycx v Rv{y RlRh[{f [p yc tzx Rzz [vf vN RlK r~ ~z~vY xl Yy t. r. n. W~. Yzylp l{ rxY rvn {x pK R[vx Yly[v xvf rfl {x. A ~z~v {Mm {x vx ~ppxY[ ~mpl r{ ~x. Yvpljx ~z~K Y vN ly vy vpv zv~~p n { { RlRh[{f [p.
K Yvplj ~{p p~j R[vx k{ ~Yp~N lv Yfxl Yy[p [xx. Rx ~p cp~l Yyppf xj | zY yY}j ~~m{ Rjh{f Y rY [jp vnz Urx p op UzrlY x. rn[zY Roy ztp r~z n vYz ycxf r{y [. {p ~~m{ vcp tY{ ~ fxM ~~m{n rf{p znn R[ rzp ~vx l x.
45 K yvl Ypl{ yc rzpx rfp rpp lyK zvY pl. zYN r[ tzN[{z yoxf rvjY p{ RvYp Ryc{ lMcp{zf n Rx{ xfrl vf {x pl. }z ~ YzfY~ ~v[K cp~l Yy Zc lz [l ~~m{ rf{p f Wzz { RvYp Ryc{ lMcp{zf Rx ~ fY ~j pl. R[ Ur|pl rpvp ~ ~p~j ~vp lvp A ~x lMcp [Mcp zzYf{l vxK pY t{ Rx z{f rnM|px Y x.
R[ rzp ~vx ~ { {n[lv ~{{ pK lz rr{ rfp [vx. ry ~~m{ rfp [vl yc S˻py ~~m{ rfvl, r ~~m{, zY~z, ~ RxMNn X}o ~~m{ Ryvl R[ rzp ~vx ~ { {n[l ~Kx. ~v |~ݲ [~vp R{y ~x [jpY vyf |z [f{Y{ r{ Spxp ry{~ r|px ~vf vz {x n Rxx.
tjhypxY vx ly Rpn X~xx. X~x Rq Yjhx tp ~v{ ~z, ~~Yܻx ~ xN ~x {pYK vMvl Y ~YlxY {{x. Rx rfyf ~ay{zf [x n Rl xpl ~xp ~y~[px. v {xpv Rlxpl r}YMvx {rl Y Rx Rl xpl R`K Rx xl t{ x ~ѻx RnM|x. R[ RnM|x Rp{ xp S rpY Ypl{ WYz rfyp [p R ~ Rly Rl xpl ~xp ~y~j.
A lY | zYN r{ |zv Ul~{x {x yc pxYxp 100 Y rvj ~u[ { pt cp[ ~v{x. Wxf n vx ~u[ {x Rlxpl ~xp ~y~[px. W{y Rx yc pxYxp 100 Y Rlp pt {ryx pxY{ t{f l rl {jx.
1964 R[vxf Wy{ |{~u[ xcp{Y Srl {x K Rlyly x. ~. r n ~z{ rvZ RjhN v Rv{y ~K WYvyY rvj Rjh{f Wy{ bpnx p. bpnx r{l{p Rlyly WY Rjh rY} vpݲ{yxY {~Åx nv R` z t Rly l{l RxY rMzKpl{f RN bpnx v { r~{x.
Rx rvn {j?
R[vx rvn r vpݲ{yx[p v~{ x.
Rr R YM WY [x X YG N p[ ĻNx.
vpݲlv[ lyY pN p Rr Y[l xx.
{ {[v |{~u[ xcp{p rycxf rl yno{ rY}xf xvf Rxf ~x.
65 W~ yno rY}xf [x vx Rl rx RYz[p YK tz ~ѻx pl. lvpf Wy{ R tzN[ cx [ppf B | zY n~ rY}x, ~v~vc rY}x Yx~G rY}x WYl Yy[p ~v[ ryvj [hp[{x.
1968 c 05 { [h p[ ~v[ ryvjf yf ry ~K ltp l{l v{yjxYf rf rf [~ppf x. A ry ~pv l{p 1970 vx 27 v v{yjx vx[ ~v[ ryvj R~p 145 p 116 Yv p [llx. Rjh{p rl Yyp zn vpݲ{y r~ npl ~v[ v Rjh rY} vpݲp [jp 121 . |{~u[xp rycx Yyp zn vx xl rMzKpl ~u [tf RN zY S܃~x rmv {l{f v v{yjxp lpp nYY tly tzxY zt[px.
1970 ~f 77 {ply tjhypxY R[vx{ rycx vf ~vl ~ tzN[xY xl [hp[p pl. yc lrf ~~m{, RuxapYyjx, xrpx |{nzx, Rz vjhzx { Rnfl yG RMYxf ~ n|rzpxf, ~vcxf tzrK Yyp Rxlp y|xY  {j K x[xx. A Rly ShK r~~Yyj rpl, yc yp ~~m{, vY ~~m{, cY S K tY{, KY ~~m{ ~ Yc ~~m{ n {x.
R[ rzp ~vx rf { yc ~Y[y ~~m{p ycxf opx [z RN v{z [` [zpp ~x. rz ~{Mop RYx, yc X}o [l ~~m{ ~ ~~z n R[ Rppv xfl [hp[j Rxlp Rlyf WY {x K Yzx x.
tjhypxY R[vx[ n|rzp alx l{l Y zY}jxY {pp R[ n| rrlxx. | zY{ YlyK Yh yfY {{l Rx ~p r{l{[p [x RrY}r n| rrl l{p z{ tz{lv yf{z | zYN [c lyp t{f rl x.
vv rfyf [p zYN {v A yf{z ~~ Rpp Xt ~v{ tjhypxY[ yfpn xzx.
~v{ ry {~y 12 Yf r~ rv~ RjhN n| Rv{yx { ypcp Fylp {yY r|x Y ~ayxp r~{ r{~Nx. Rx A lyK rtz z~ ~p[ n{l vlY ~fp S Y x.
Rx Ypl{. YKv YK Ypl{Y p{ yvl Ypl{. R[ Rv vjhzx r Rv{y ~x npv Rxf vl ~ [y{ Y x. vx Ypl{Y { ~n ~v yc Ul~{xYf vlrp [p Av B ~ry lpK Y x. K{xY vlrp Rx Sxf xvf lyK Wly Rv{y W ~ѻx pl.
yc ~n ~ Ul~{ RyYY [nK t{f rl Y RlK Rx vN tjhypxY[ pvx ttzx. yp ttzx.
yG Ry ` ~vxp Rx yc Ul~{{zf ~r Yv v [ppN pl. R[ ycx ~n ~ Ul~{{zf tj Rz, tlz, vdYY, v Rf, Y{r { n|x Yv vx.
Wlx lyK xm{ lmY [jxp xl rzYxY vl xx r {x pl. R[p r~{ K yG r { yc pxYxp t np S bpnx tz[p {h Yyp YKv YK n|rzpexp x.